Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia with Remifentanil as an Alternative to Epidural Analgesia during Labor: Case Series and Discussion of Medicolegal Aspects.
Summary of "Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia with Remifentanil as an Alternative to Epidural Analgesia during Labor: Case Series and Discussion of Medicolegal Aspects."
Epidural analgesia is considered as the standard method for labor analgesia by inducing a minimal negative impact on labor while providing effective analgesia. Labor analgesia in the absence of epidural analgesia is difficult to achieve with the commonly used analgesic interventions. If epidural analgesia is not feasible due to coagulation disorders, anticoagulation, inability to insert an epidural catheter or due to the mother''s refusal to accept neuraxial analgesia, there is a need for interventions to cope with labor pain. So far, pethidine, diamorphine, meptazinol and spasmolytics remain the most widely used substances for IM and IV use. Unfortunately, in addition to not being very effective, these interventions may be associated with undesirable side effects for the parturient and the newborn. For a decade, anaesthesiologists have experienced the unique properties of remifentanil in the settings of surgical anaesthesia and conscious sedation since it was introduced for labor analgesia. Unfortunately, remifentanil is not licensed for administration to the pregnant patient, and it is unlikely that the manufacturers would consider the cost justified.
Therefore, relevant concerns, legal issues and precautions are discussed based on the presentation of case series and a protocol is presented on how the use of remifentanil can be safely implemented for labor analgesia in selected situations. RESULTS AND
Proper informed consent, appropriate monitoring for the mother and the newborn, one-to-one nursing or midwifery care as well as the availability of an attending physician experienced in neonatal resuscitation and an anaesthesiologist with experience regarding the use of remifentanil are important to ensure that this method retains its good reputation for obstetric analgesia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20806149
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1255025
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)
Blood Patch, Epidural
The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.
Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal
A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
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