Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2.
Summary of "Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2."
There is a long-standing controversy about the role of serotonin in sleep/wake control, with competing theories that it either promotes sleep or causes arousal. Here, we show that there is a marked increase in wakefulness when all serotonin neurons are genetically deleted in mice hemizygous for ePet1-Cre and homozygous for floxed Lmx1b (Lmx1b(f/f/p)). However, this only occurs at cool ambient temperatures and can be explained by a thermoregulatory defect that leads to an increase in motor activity to generate heat. Because some serotonin neurons are stimulated by CO(2), and serotonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized that serotonin neurons cause arousal in response to hypercapnia. We found that Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice completely lacked any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO(2) (with 21% O(2) in balance N(2)) but had normal arousal responses to hypoxia, sound, and air puff. We propose that serotonin neurons mediate the potentially life-saving arousal response to hypercapnia. Impairment of this response may contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, sudden infant death syndrome, and sleep apnea.
Departments of Neurology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805497
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1004587107
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-ht1a
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. Some are cytotoxic serotonin analogs that are preferentially taken up by serotonergic neurons and then destroy those neurons.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
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