Anthropophilic mosquitoes and malaria transmission in the eastern foothills of the central highlands of Madagascar.
Summary of "Anthropophilic mosquitoes and malaria transmission in the eastern foothills of the central highlands of Madagascar."
Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar, as it is the first cause of morbidity in health care facilities. Its transmission remains poorly documented. An entomological study was carried out over one year (October 2003 to September 2004) in Saharevo, a village located at an altitude of 900 m on the eastern edge of the Malagasy central highlands. Mosquitoes were sampled weekly upon landing on human volunteers and in various resting-places. Out of 5,515 mosquitoes collected on humans, 3,219 (58.4%) were anophelines. Eleven anopheline species were represented, among which Anopheles funestus, An. gambiae, An. arabiensis and An. mascarensis. Out of 677 mosquitoes collected in bedrooms by pyrethrum spray catches and in Muirhead-Thomson pits, 656 (96.9%) were anopheline belonging to these four latter species. The proportion of mosquitoes that fed on human varied according to the resting places and the mosquito species: 86% of An. funestus resting in bedrooms fed on humans, whereas only 16% of An. funestus and 0% of An. mascarensis resting in pits fed on humans. The proportion of anopheline mosquitoes infected with human Plasmodium was measured by circumsporozoite protein-
10/633 An. funestus (1.58%), 1/211 An. gambiae s.l. (0.48%) and 2/268 An. mascarensis (0.75%). The annual entomological inoculation rate (number of bites of infected anophelines per adult) was estimated at 2.78. The transmission was mainly due to An. funestus and only observed in the second half of the rainy season, from February to May. These results are discussed in the context of the current malaria vector control policy in Madagascar.
Groupe de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta tropica
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804715
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.08.017
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A biguanide compound which has little antimalarial activity until metabolized in the body to the active antimalarial agent cycloguanil. The usefulness of proguanil is limited by the rapid development of drug resistance by the malarial parasite. The hydrochloride is used for the casual prophylaxis of falciparum malaria, to suppress other forms of malaria, and to reduce transmission of infection (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p405)
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