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Abstract Multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs)-induced apoptotic changes were studied in human lung epithelium cell line-A549. Non-cytotoxic doses of MWCNTs were identified using tetrazolium bromide salt (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Cells were exposed to MWCNTs (0.5-100 mug/ml) for 6-72 h. Internalization and characterization of CNTs was performed by electron microscopy. Apoptotic changes were estimated by nuclear condensation, DNA laddering, and confirmed by expression of associated markers: p(53), p(21WAF1/CIP1), Bax, Bcl(2) and activated caspase-3. MWCNTs induced the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde along with significant decrease in the activity of catalase and glutathione. MWCNTs-induced ROS generation was found not to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. In general, the changes were significant at 10 and 50 mug/ml only. Results indicate the involvement of oxidative stress and apoptosis in A549 cells exposed to MWCNTs. Our studies provide insights of the mechanisms involved in MWCNTs-induced apoptosis at cellular level.
Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi).
This article was published in the following journal.
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Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
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A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
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