The Regulation of Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Summary of "The Regulation of Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells."
Abstract Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are a population of stromal cells present in the bone marrow and most connective tissues, capable of differentiation into mesenchymal tissues such as bone and cartilage. MSCs are attractive candidates for biological cell-based tissue repair approaches because of their extensive proliferative ability in culture while retaining their mesenchymal multilineage differentiation potential. In addition to its undoubted scientific interest, the prospect of monitoring and controlling MSC differentiation is a crucial regulatory and clinical requirement. Hence, the molecular regulation of MSC differentiation has been extensively studied. Most of the studies are in vitro, because the identity of MSCs in their tissues of origin in vivo remains undefined. This review addresses the current knowledge of the molecular basis of differentiation of cultured MSCs, with a particular focus on chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Building on the information coming from developmental biology studies of embryonic skeletogenesis, several signaling pathways and transcription factors have been investigated and shown to play critical roles in MSC differentiation. In particular, the Wnt and transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways are well known to modulate in MSCs the molecular differentiation into cartilage and bone. Relevant to the emerging concept of stem cell niches is the demonstration that physical factors can also participate in the regulation of MSC differentiation. Knowledge of the regulation of MSC differentiation will be critical in the design of three-dimensional culture systems and bioreactors for automated bioprocessing through mathematical models applied to systems biology and network science.
Regenerative Medicine Unit, Bone and Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen , Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom .
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Human gene therapy
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804388
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2010.173
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Cells that can develop into distinct mesenchymal tissue such as BONE; TENDONS; MUSCLES; ADIPOSE TISSUE; CARTILAGE; NERVE TISSUE; and BLOOD and BLOOD VESSELS.
Multipotent Stem Cells
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Growth Differentiation Factor 3
A growth differentiation factor that may play a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS by inhibiting the actions of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Differentiation factor 3 is also considered a nodal signaling ligand that influences the genesis of left-right asymmetry.
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