Copper and Ceruloplasmin Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease.
Summary of "Copper and Ceruloplasmin Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease."
The idea that copper may play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is gaining momentum. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin were measured by both enzymatic (eCp) and immunologic (iCp) methods in 28 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 29 age-matched controls. "Free copper" was determined by subtracting copper accounted for in the eCp assay from total serum copper. Percentage free copper, that is the proportion of serum copper not bound to ceruloplasmin, was significantly elevated in patients with Alzheimer's compared to controls. There was significantly more "defective" ceruloplasmin, which is apoceruloplamin lacking its copper, in Alzheimer's disease than in normal controls. This abnormality may precede the clinical onset of the disease and help predict risk of disease onset. Increased exposure to environmental copper (eg, the spread of copper plumbing and the use of copper in supplements) and/or defective ceruloplasmin function may play a role in the current epidemic of Alzheimer's disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20631161
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533317510375083
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 22.214.171.124), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
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