Obstructive sleep apnea and ocular disorders.
Summary of "Obstructive sleep apnea and ocular disorders."
Obstructive sleep apnea is a diagnosis that ophthalmologists can screen for when a patient presents with certain risk factors. Recent literature provides strong data for associations between sleep apnea and ocular disorders. RECENT
A potentially serious disorder, sleep apnea can lead to many systemic and ocular complications. Recent findings provide data on the prevalence of sleep apnea with various disorders. Adequate treatment of sleep apnea has also shown to reverse both systemic and eye-related complications.
Early diagnosis and management of sleep apnea is critical for reducing the risk of devastating systemic complications and preserving ocular and visual function. Further longitudinal data are needed to see the effectivity of long-term management of sleep apnea and its impact on reversing associated complications.
Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in ophthalmology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20811281
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0b013e32833f00dc
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
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