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Strong associations of diabetes with sleep impairment have been frequently reported. In the present review, we discuss current evidence and hypotheses for how type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with sleep impairment. This association may be described as a vicious circle, where sleep disorders favor the development of type 2 diabetes or exacerbate the metabolic control of both types of diabetes, whereas diabetes itself, especially when associated with poor metabolic control, is often followed by sleep disorders. In this review, novel findings concerning the neuro-endocrine-metabolic mediation of the mentioned circle are highlighted. Understanding how this association occurs, the impact of sleep impairment on diabetes, and the impact of diabetes on the development or exacerbation of sleep disorders should lead to potential new therapeutic strategies for treating both conditions.
Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo (ICB-USP), Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Diabetes research and clinical practice
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The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
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