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Objective: To validate the diagnostic efficacy of saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) in the evaluation of uterine cavity,in women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness (3) 5 mm. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from March 2005 to July 2008 and Combined Military Hospital, Multan, from September 2008 to June 2009. Methodology: Seventy seven eligible participants included women complaining of postmenopausal bleeding were included; out of whom 69 completed the procedure satisfactorily. Pain scores during procedure were assessed to determine patient acceptability. Following saline infusion sonohysterography all patients also underwent an out door pipelle endometrial biopsy in a one-stop postmenopausal bleed clinic. Findings of sonohysterography were compared with hysteroscopy/ hysterectomy specimen. Results: Majority of the patients 34 (49.2%) experienced no pain during the procedure, 51 (74%) women had a positive SIS and the findings were negative in 18 (26%) patients. The commonest abnormal finding on SIS was focal thickening in 23 (32%) and endometrial polyp in 12 (17%) cases. Saline infusion hysterosonography picked up 3 cases of false positive polyps (5.8%) and missed a case of submucous fibroid near cervix (1.8%). Upon comparison of findings of hysteroscopy and hysterectomy in 53 cases, there was complete agreement in a total of 43 (88%) cases. The sensitivity of sonohysterography was 92% and specificity was 78%. All the ladies with abnormal SIS had diagnostic or therapeutic procedures and finally only 24 (35%) were managed on conservative follow-up. Normal SIS led to conservative management in 16 (88%). Conclusion: Sonohysterography in combination with endometrial biopsy is a useful technique useful for the evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding. Patient acceptability and diagnostic capability is high and it reduces demand for hysteroscopy.
Department of Gynaecology, Combined Military Hospital, Multan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
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Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
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Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage”. Some illnesses can be excruci...