Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects.
Summary of "Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects."
The objective of the present study was to compare whole pea flour (WPF) to fractionated pea flour (FPF; hulls only) for their ability to reduce risk factors associated with CVD and diabetes in overweight hypercholesterolaemic individuals. Using a cross-over design, twenty-three hypercholesterolaemic overweight men and women received two-treatment muffins/d containing WPF, FPF or white wheat flour (WF) for 28 d, followed by 28 d washout periods. Daily doses of WPF and FPF complied with the United States Department of Agriculture's recommended level of intake of half a cup of pulses/d (approximately 50 g/d). Dietary energy requirements were calculated for each study subject, and volunteers were only permitted to eat food supplied by the study personnel. Fasting insulin, body composition, urinary enterolactone levels, postprandial glucose response, as well as fasting lipid and glucose concentrations, were assessed at the beginning and at the end of each treatment. Insulin concentrations for WPF (37.8 (sem 3.4) pmol/ml, P = 0.021) and FPF (40.5 (sem 3.4) pmol/ml, P = 0.037) were lower compared with WF (50.7 (sem 3.4) pmol/ml). Insulin homeostasis modelling assessment showed that consumption of WPF and FPF decreased (P < 0.05) estimates of insulin resistance (IR) compared with WF. Android:gynoid fat ratios in women participants were lower (P = 0.027) in the WPF (1.01 (sem 0.01) group compared with the WF group (1.06 (sem 0.01). Urinary enterolactone levels tended to be higher (P = 0.087) in WPF compared with WF. Neither treatment altered circulating fasting lipids or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, under a controlled diet paradigm, a daily consumption of whole and fractionated yellow pea flours at doses equivalent to half a cup of yellow peas/d reduced IR, while WPF reduced android adiposity in women.
The Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, 196 Innovation Drive, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The British journal of nutrition
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20807459
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510003156
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Insulin formulation containing substance which delays or retards time period of the absorption of insulin.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Insulin Infusion Systems
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
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