Comparison of the effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen alone or in combination on postoperative pain and on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy.

06:00 EDT 3rd September 2010 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Comparison of the effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen alone or in combination on postoperative pain and on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy."

Objective-To compare analgesic effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen administered alone and in combination and their effects on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin (IL)-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy. Animals-42 dogs with oral neoplasms. Procedures-30 minutes before the end of surgery, dogs received SC injections of tramadol (2 mg/kg), codeine (2 mg/kg), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg), tramadol + ketoprofen, or codeine + ketoprofen (at the aforementioned dosages). Physiologic variables, analgesia, and sedation were measured before (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours after surgery. Blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum IL-6 concentrations were measured 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after administration of analgesics. Results-All treatments provided adequate postoperative analgesia. Significant increases in mean +/- SD blood glucose concentrations were detected in dogs receiving tramadol (96 +/- 14 mg/dL), codeine (120 +/- 66 mg/dL and 96 +/- 21 mg/dL), ketoprofen (105 +/- 22 mg/dL), and codeine + ketoprofen (104 +/- 16 mg/dL) at 5, 1 and 3, 5, and 3 hours after analgesic administration, respectively, compared with preoperative (baseline) values. There were no significant changes in physiologic variables, serum IL-6 concentrations, or serum cortisol concentrations. Dogs administered codeine + ketoprofen had light but significant sedation at 4, 5, and 24 hours. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Opioids alone or in combination with an NSAID promoted analgesia without adverse effects during the 24-hour postoperative period in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy for removal of oral neoplasms. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1019-1026).


Postgraduate Program of Anesthesiology of Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, CEP 05403-900, Brazil.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: American journal of veterinary research
ISSN: 0002-9645
Pages: 1019-26


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