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To evaluate the accuracy of 3D ultrasound in fetal gender assignment at first trimester
A series of pregnant women attending at 11-13 + 6 weeks for the nuchal translucency scan were enrolled in the study. An ultrasound volume of each fetus was performed and stored for offline analysis. On the reconstructed midsagittal plane the angle between the genital tubercle and an imaginary line passing tangentially through the fetal back (Genital angle) was estimated. Fetal gender was subsequently ascertained in all cases. To calculate the inter-observer variability, another operator has performed the same measurements.
Overall 85 cases were included in the study. Genital angle in males was significantly higher compared to females (51.2 +/- 11.3 degrees , n = 36 vs. 18.9 +/- 4.1 degrees , n = 49; P<0.001). The ROC curve of the fetal angle revealed a high accuracy of the estimated genital angle in fetal sex determination (AUC +/- SE = 1.000 +/- 0.001). An angle lying between 27 masculine and 29 masculine was identified as the best cut-off for male sex determination (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.0%). A high degree of correlation was observed between the two operators (r square = 0.998; coefficient of variation = 5.4%).
3D ultrasound is a highly accurate and reproducible tool for fetal gender assignment prior to 14 weeks of gestation. Copyright (c) 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Bologna, Italy.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION (GENETICS). Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
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Obstetrics and gynaecology
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