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Hypoglycemia in the Newborn.

Summary of "Hypoglycemia in the Newborn."

Hypoglycemia in a neonate is defined as blood sugar value below 40 mg/dL. It is commonly associated with a variety of neonatal conditions like prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal diabetes. Screening for hypoglycemia in high-risk situations is recommended. Supervised breast-feeding may be an initial treatment option in asymptomatic hypoglycemia. However, symptomatic hypoglycemia should always be treated with a continuous infusion of parenteral dextrose. Neonates needing dextrose infusion rates above 12 mg/kg/min should be investigated for a definite cause of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia has been linked to poor neuro-developmental outcome, and hence aggressive screening and treatment is recommended.

Affiliation

Department of Pediatrics, Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Indian journal of pediatrics
ISSN: 0973-7693
Pages:

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.

An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).

A form of nontransient HYPOGLYCEMIA, unique to infancy, due to autosomal recessive mutations of the sulfonylurea receptor gene on CHROMOSOME 11. Defects in the sulfonylurea receptors (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS) on the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS prevent negative feedback of GLUCOSE-regulated INSULIN release thus resulting in HYPERINSULINEMIA. Clinical phenotype includes SEIZURES; COMA; and often large BIRTH WEIGHT for GESTATIONAL AGE.

The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.

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