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Scoliosis is a multifactorial three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformity with integral and directly related vertebral deviations in the coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes. Current classification and diagnostic methods rely on two-dimensional (2D) frontal and lateral X-ray images; no routine methods are available for the visualization and quantitative evaluation of deviations in the horizontal plane. The EOS 2D/3D system presented here is a new, low-dose, orthopedic radiodiagnostic device based on Nobel prize-winning X-ray detection technology with special software for 3D surface reconstruction capabilities that finally led to a breakthrough in scoliosis diagnosis with high-quality, realistic 3D visualization and accurate quantitative parametric analysis. A new concept introducing vertebra vectors and vertebra vector parametric calculations is introduced that furnishes simplified visual and intelligible mathematical information facilitating interpretation of EOS 2D/3D data, especially with regard to the horizontal plane top view images. The concept is demonstrated by a reported scoliotic case that was readily characterized through information derived from vertebra vectors alone, supplemented with the current angulation measurement methods in the coronal and sagittal planes and axial vertebral rotation measurements in the horizontal plane, with a calibrated 3D coordinate system suitable for inter-individual comparisons. The new concept of vertebra vectors may serve as a basis for a truly 3D classification of scoliosis.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institute of Musculoskeletal Surgery, University of Pécs, Clinical Center, 13 Ifjúság útja, Pecs, 7624, Hungary, email@example.com.
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Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
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Arthroplasty Joint Disorders Orthopedics Spinal Cord Disorders Orthopedics is the science or practice of correcting deformities caused by disease or damage to the bones and joints of the skeleton. This specialized branch of surgery may ...