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The reflectance of a surface can be altered by controlling the concentration of dye ions in a region adjacent to an optically transparent and electrically conductive thin film. We present a method for nonmechanical light deflection achieved by altering the reflectance of a diffraction grating, an approach that creates new diffraction peaks that lie between those associated with the original grating spacing. We have demonstrated this effect by applying an electrical potential difference between interdigitated indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes and measuring the intensity of one of the new diffraction peaks. The measured diffraction peak intensities were found to reversibly deflect approximately 7% of the reflected light to previously nonexistent peaks. The diffraction grating was formed by patterning a thin film of planar, untreated ITO on a glass substrate using standard photolithography techniques. The size scale for this method of electrically controlled diffraction is limited only by the lithographic process; thus there is potential for the grating to deflect light to angles greater than those achievable using other methods. This approach could be used in applications such as telecommunications, where large deflection angles are required, or other applications where alternate beam-steering methods are cost prohibitive.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Applied optics
Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatogr...
Electrokinetic injection (EI) is the primary method used in forensic laboratories to load amplified PCR product in capillary electrophoresis for short tandem repeat (STR) fragment separation. Because ...
The ability to confine and manipulate light below the diffraction limit is a major goal of future multifunctional optoelectronic/plasmonic systems. Here, we demonstrate the design and realization of a...
In this paper, a numerical model of an electrically enhanced membrane bioreactor (MBER) was developed. MBER is a reactor that combines biological decomposition, membrane filtration and electrocoagulat...
Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, it has been reported that a hair from an individual with breast cancer exhibits a difference in its molecular structure compared to that of an individu...
Fibroblasts can be cultured from human skin biopsies using fetal bovine serum and artificial growth medium. Fibroblasts cultured in this way retain the genetic characteristics of their do...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the 131I-chTNT-1/B treatment effect and safety of individual therapy using randomized controlled study, in order to acquire the evidence of evidence-ba...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether intensive, focused training of the affected upper extremity after stroke results in long-term functional gains in moderately-to-severely p...
The purpose of this study is to determine if patients undergoing a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) experience a clinically significant reduction in healing time when treated post operatively...
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.