Sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A two-night polysomnographic study with a multiple sleep latency test.
Summary of "Sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A two-night polysomnographic study with a multiple sleep latency test."
To evaluate sleep macrostructure, sleep disorders incidence and daytime sleepiness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affected children compared with controls.
Thirty-one patients (26 boys, 5 girls, mean age 9.3+/-1.7, age range 6-12years) with ADHD diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, without comorbid psychiatric or other disorders, as never before pharmacologically treated for ADHD. The controls were 26 age- and sex-matched children (22 boys, 4 girls, age range 6-12years, mean age 9.2+/-1.5). Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was performed for two nights followed by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT).
No differences between the two groups comparing both nights were found in the basic sleep macrostructure parameters or in the time (duration) of sleep onset. A first-night effect on sleep variables was apparent in the ADHD group. Occurrence of sleep disorders (sleep-disordered breathing [SDB], periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], parasomnias) did not show any significant differences between the investigated groups. A statistically significant difference (p=0.015) was found in the trend of the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) between two nights (a decrease of PLMI in the ADHD group and an increase of PLMI in the control group during the second night). While the mean sleep latency in the MSLT was comparable in both groups, children with ADHD showed significant (sleep latency) inter-test differences (between tests 1 and 2, 1 and 4, 1 and 5, p<0.01).
After the inclusion of adaptation night and exclusion of psychiatric comorbidities, PSG showed no changes in basic sleep parameters or sleep timing, or in the frequency of sleep disorders (SDB, PLMS) in children with ADHD compared with controls, thus not supporting the hypothesis that specific changes in the sleep macrostructure and sleep disturbances are connected with ADHD. A first-night effect on sleep variables was apparent only in the ADHD group. Though we found no proof of increased daytime sleepiness in children with ADHD against the controls, we did find significant vigilance variability during MSLT in the ADHD group, possibly a sign of dysregulated arousal.
Department of Neurology, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Sleep medicine
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20817551
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2010.03.017
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
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