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To investigate the efficacy of sorafenib in progressive metastatic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC), for which there is currently no effective treatment.
Off-label observational study.
Sorafenib 400 mg twice daily was evaluated. The primary endpoint was the objective Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) score assessed on day 28 and every 12 weeks thereafter. Additional endpoints were time to response, duration of tumour response, tumour-related symptoms, and changes in tumour markers, calcitonin, and CEA measured initially, at 2 weeks, and then every 4 weeks. Therapy duration was 2 weeks, and 3-12 months.
The 5 patients meeting study criteria received sorafenib 400 mg orally twice a day until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity developed. 2 patients showed a partial response with tumour regression of -46% and -36% after 6 and 9 months, respectively, and 2 patients exhibited tumour regression of -14% and -29%, respectively (stable disease). Ultrasound-documented regression of -37% within 2 weeks occurred in 1 patient. Calcitonin decreased within 2 weeks in all patients by -69, -90, -75, -96, and -39%, respectively. 1 patient died because of progressive ascites from acute renal and hepatocellular failure. 2 patients developed grade 3 hand-foot syndrome within the first month, so that sorafenib was interrupted or reduced; other side effects were rash, fatigue, and hair loss. 3 patients remain on sorafenib, 2 at a reduced dosage (600 mg/d).
These data suggest a possible role for sorafenib in the treatment of progressive metastatic MTC.
Endocrine Practice, Molecular Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
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To compare the effects and safety of Anlotinib with placebo in patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An aggressive THYROID GLAND malignancy which generally occurs in IODINE-deficient areas in people with previous thyroid pathology such as GOITER. It is associated with CELL DEDIFFERENTIATION of THYROID CARCINOMA (e.g., FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA; PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER). Typical initial presentation is a rapidly growing neck mass which upon metastasis is associated with DYSPHAGIA; NECK PAIN; bone pain; DYSPNEA; and NEUROLOGIC DEFICITS.
Similar to MEN2A, it is also caused by mutations of the MEN2 gene, also known as the RET proto-oncogene. Its clinical symptoms include medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of THYROID GLAND and PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of ADRENAL MEDULLA (50%). Unlike MEN2a, MEN2b does not involve PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It can be distinguished from MEN2A by its neural abnormalities such as mucosal NEUROMAS on EYELIDS; LIP; and TONGUE, and ganglioneuromatosis of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to MEGACOLON. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...