Minimal changes in environmental temperature result in a significant increase in energy expenditure and changes in the hormonal homeostasis in healthy adults.
Summary of "Minimal changes in environmental temperature result in a significant increase in energy expenditure and changes in the hormonal homeostasis in healthy adults."
Objective. Resting energy expenditure is a major contributor to the total energy expenditure and thus plays an important role in body weight regulation. Adaptive thermogenesis is a major component of energy expenditure in rodents, but little is known on the effects of exposure of humans to mild and sustainable reduction of environmental temperature. Design. To characterize the dynamic changes in continuously measured resting energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and hormonal axes simultaneously in response to mild reduction of environmental temperature we performed a cross-over intervention. Methods. Twenty-five volunteers underwent two 12-hour recordings of energy expenditure in whole-room indirect calorimeters at 24° C and 19° C with simultaneous measurement of spontaneous movements and hormonal axes. Results. Exposure to 19° C resulted in an increase in plasma and urine norepinephrine levels (p<0.0001), and a 5.96 % (p<0.001) increase in energy expenditure without significant changes in spontaneous physical activity. Exposure to the lower temperature resulted in a significant increase in free fatty acid levels (p<0.01), fasting insulin levels (p<0.05), and a marginal decrease in postprandial glucose levels. A small but significant (p<0.002) increase in serum free T4 and urinary free cortisol (p<0.05) were observed at 19° C. Conclusions. Our observations indicate that exposure to 19° C, a mild and tolerable cold temperature, results in a predictable increase in energy expenditure driven by a sustained rise in catecholamine, and the activation of counter-regulatory mechanisms.
F Celi , Clinical Endocrinology Branch, NIDDK-NIH, Bethesda, 20892, United States.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20826525
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-10-0627
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Body Temperature Changes
Significant alterations in temperature of the human body, above or below 98.6 degrees F. or 37 degrees C. when taken orally.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
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