Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for the Management of Renal Stone Burdens That Measure 2 to 3 cm: A Multi-Institutional Experience.
Summary of "Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for the Management of Renal Stone Burdens That Measure 2 to 3 cm: A Multi-Institutional Experience."
Abstract Background and Purpose: Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is the current standard of care for management of large renal stones (>2 cm). Recent studies have evaluated flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS)/holmium laser lithotripsy as an alternative treatment for patients with contraindications to or preference against PCNL. Stones in an intermediate size range (2-3 cm) may be most amenable to URS/laser lithotripsy as definitive treatment in a single stage. We report a multi-institutional series of URS/laser lithotripsy for renal stone burdens that measure 2 to 3 cm. Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent URS/holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones that measured 2 to 3 cm were identified retrospectively at three tertiary care centers. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative data were gathered. Patients with renal stone burdens of 2 to 3 cm who were treated by URS/laser lithotripsy and had at least one postoperative visit and imaging study were included. Stone clearance was evaluated using 0-2 mm and < 4 mm residual stone burden on postoperative imaging. Results: One hundred and twenty patients underwent URS/holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones of 2 to 3 cm. Mean stone burden was 2.4 cm, and mean body mass index was 29.3 kg/m(2). Indications for URS/laser lithotripsy vs PCNL included patient preference (57), technical or anatomic factors (24), patient comorbidities (17), failed shockwave lithotripsy (9), patient body habitus (3), solitary kidney (3), chronic renal insufficiency (3), and strict anticoagulation (2). Thirty-one (26%) patients had stent placement preprocedure, and 94 (78%) patients underwent outpatient surgery. A ureteral access sheath was used in 67%. One hundred and one (84%) patients underwent single-stage procedures. There was one intraoperative complication (ureteral perforation), and there were eight minor postoperative complications (6.7%). The reoperation rate through the mean 18-month follow-up was 3/120 or 2.5%. Seventy-six (63%) patients had residual stone burden of 0 to 2 mm, and 100 (83%) patients had residual burden of <4 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that single-stage URS/holmium laser lithotripsy is effective for management of renal stones that measure 2 to 3 cm through intermediate follow-up. Staged procedures can be used selectively for technical reasons or disease factors. Although PCNL achieves superior stone clearance overall, URS/laser lithotripsy is a viable treatment option for selected patients.
1 Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine , New York, New York.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20629566
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2009.0629
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.
A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).
Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.
A severe pain in the lower back radiating to the groin, scrotum, and labia which is most commonly caused by a kidney stone (RENAL CALCULUS) passing through the URETER or by other urinary track blockage. It is often associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, restlessness, dull pain, frequent urination, and HEMATURIA.
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