Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Current understanding of the role of several cancer risk factors is more comprehensive, as reported for a number of sites, including the brain, colon, breasts, and ovaries. Despite such advances, the incidence of breast cancer continues to increase worldwide. Signals from the microenviroment have a profound influence on the maintenance or progression cancers. Although T cells present the most important immunological response in tumor growth in the early stages of cancer, they become suppressive CD4(+) and CD8(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) after chronic stimulation and interactions with tumor cells, thus promoting rather than inhibiting cancer development and progression. Tregs have an important marker protein which is FoxP3, though it does not necessarily confer a Treg phenotype when expressed in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. High Treg levels have been reported in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and tumor specimens from patients with different types of cancer. The precise mechanisms by which Tregs suppress immune cell functions remain unclear, and there are reports of both direct inhibition through cell-cell contact and indirect inhibition through the secretion of anti-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin. In this review, we present the molecular and immunological aspects of Treg cells in the metastasis of breast cancer.
Department of Pathological Sciences, Biological Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer metastasis reviews
Presence of circulating Her2-reactive CD8 + T-cells is associated with lower frequencies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, and better survival in older breast cancer patients.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Its incidence is increasing in many countries and a higher number of older women are now being diagnosed with the disease. Immune parameter...
DNA methylation variability regions (MVRs) across the oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene have been identified in peripheral blood cells from breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. In contra...
Currently, many breast cancer patients with localized breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy, consisting of local excision followed by radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy, breast c...
Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with breast cancer; however, the available treatments are limited and ineffective. While liver-specific homing of breast cancer cells is an import...
Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-1, originally identified as a transcription factor of the human interferon (IFN)-β gene, mediates tumor suppression and may inhibit oncogenesis. We have shown that ...
To better understand the mechanisms leading to lymphedema development in breast cancer survivors, and the implications for potential innovative approaches to the screening, prevention and ...
This research study is a Phase II clinical trial. Phase II clinical trials test the effectiveness of an investigational drug to learn whether the drug works in treating a specific cancer. ...
T regulatory lymphocytes were shown to be partly responsible for immune tolerance to cancer cells. In that respect these cells oppose to the mounting of an efficacious immune response need...
The underlying biology of the various patterns of metastasis observed in different tumour types remains unclear. The detection and characterization of circulating tumour cells in cancer pa...
This is a feasibility study to examine combination therapy with Trastuzumab (T), Cyclophosphamide (CY), and an allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting whole cell breast cancer vaccine in patients with...
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Head and neck cancers
Cancer can occur in any of the tissues or organs in the head and neck. There are over 30 different places that cancer can develop in the head and neck area. Mouth cancers (oral cancers) - Mouth cancer can develop on the lip, the tongue, the floor...
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...