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To review current advances in the diagnosis and therapy of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease. RECENT
A new T-cell subset (Th17) may play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory disease when stimulated by the interleukin (IL)-23, thus producing IL-17. Recent developments of new imaging techniques, such as high-resolution optical coherence tomography 3 scanner (OCT3), have allowed greater accuracy in VKH disease diagnosis. The OCT3 examinations have shown that cystoid spaces appear in the neurosensory layer (between the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors) and not in the subretinal space. This structural finding was also supported by functional studies with multifocal electroretinography that measured the photoreceptors activity. Antimetabolites (azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and methotrexate), T-cell inhibitors (cyclosporine and tacrolimus) and biologic agents, associated with the well known glucocorticosteroids therapy, showed good results in acute and chronic phases of the disease. Intravitreal triamcinolone and bevacizumab were reported to have encouraging results for progressive or stubborn cases of VKH disease.
To uphold visual acuity, an early, fast and accurate diagnosis is necessary, followed by an aggressive and lengthy immunosuppressive treatment.
Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Casa Hospital, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in ophthalmology
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Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.