Epworth sleepiness scale in obstructive sleep disordered breathing: the reliability and validity of the Thai version.
Summary of "Epworth sleepiness scale in obstructive sleep disordered breathing: the reliability and validity of the Thai version."
The objectives of this study are to test the reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and to assess the relationship between the ESS score and the severity of obstructive sleep disordered breathing.
A total of 228 subjects (149 males and 79 females) were recruited. In order to check the discriminant validity of the ESS, we included 32 healthy volunteers and 39 patients with primary snoring to be the control groups and 126 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) confirmed by full polysomnography to be the disease groups. The test-retest reliability was investigated in 71 subjects. To check the responsiveness properties of the questionnaire, we asked a separate group of 31 patients who were successfully treated with either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or upper airway surgery to complete the ESS before and after treatment at 3-6 months.
The internal consistency demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients for standardized item was 0.87 and a range from 0.84 to 0.86 if some items were deleted. The test-retest reliability was shown by intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.79. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean of the ESS scores of the control groups (6.1 ± 3.0) and the OSA patients (9.9 ± 5.3) (p < 0.001). The ESS scores decreased significantly after a successful treatment with both CPAP and surgery (p < 0.001); however, there was no statistically significant difference among different severities of OSA.
Our Thai version of the ESS showed an excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. It is able to discriminate between control subjects and OSA patients and to assess the response of treatment; however, it has a weak relationship with the apnea-hypopnea index. Therefore, we recommend use it to combine with more comprehensive clinical evaluation in obstructive sleep disordered breathing patients.
The Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Siriraj Sleep Center, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, 10700, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20835769
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-010-0405-9
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
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