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Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are severe psychiatric illnesses with a combined prevalence of 4%. A disturbance of energy metabolism is frequently observed in these disorders. Several pieces of evidence point to an underlying dysfunction of mitochondria: i) decreased mitochondrial respiration; (ii) changes in mitochondrial morphology; iii) increases in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms and in levels of mtDNA mutations; iv) downregulation of nuclear mRNA molecules and proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration; v) decreased high-energy phosphates and decreased pH in the brain; and vi) psychotic and affective symptoms, and cognitive decline in mitochondrial disorders. Furthermore, transgenic mice with mutated mitochondrial DNA polymerase show mood disorder-like phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the genetic and physiological components of mitochondria and the evidence for mitochondrial abnormalities in BPD and SZ. We will furthermore describe the role of mitochondria during brain development and the effect of current drugs for mental illness on mitochondrial function. Understanding the role of mitochondria, both developmentally as well as in the ailing brain, is of critical importance to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in psychiatric disorders.
Neuroscience Graduate Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232.
This article was published in the following journal.
Brain imaging studies have implicated white matter dysfunction in the pathophysiology of both bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the contribution of axons to white matter patholog...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly observed in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and may be a central feature of psychosis. These illnesses are complex and heterogeneous, which is refle...
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enab...
Several studies show an association between schizophrenia and low levels of vitamin D. To date, there are only few studies about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bipolar disorde...
The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain...
This study aims to gather additional information to support the theory that bipolar disorder is due to cellular (mitochondrial) dysfunction. To test this theory adults with bipolar disord...
Theory of mind (TOM), a main component of social cognition processes, refers to the capacity to infer one's own and other person's mental states. Deficits in social cognition are found in ...
Investigation of the impact of Zeldox on metabolic parameters in patients with bipolar disorder or with schizophrenia and the impact of the treatment with quality of life.
The primary objective of this 15-week clinical trial is to test the hypothesis that treatment with two proven mitochondrial enhancers, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) and α-lipoic acid (ALA), ...
The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy (how well the drug works) of risperidone compared to placebo (an inactive drug) in the treatment of...
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by alterations of mitochondrial metabolism that result in muscle and nervous system dysfunction. These are often multisystemic and vary considerably in age at onset (usually in the first or second decade of life), distribution of affected muscles, severity, and course. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp984-5)
A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Schizophrenia is a common serious long-term mental health condition that affects 5 in 1000 in the UK. It causes a range of different psychological symptoms; hallucinations, delusions, muddled thoughts based on the hallucinations or delusions and ch...