Perfusion brain SPECT and Alzheimer disease.
Summary of "Perfusion brain SPECT and Alzheimer disease."
Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of degenerative dementia. There is an asymptomatic phase of the disease. Brain single photon computed tomography (SPECT) is a simple way to investigate the cerebral blood flow. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by hypoperfusion in the medial temporal, associative posterior parietal cortex and frontal cortex. Brain SPECT could also have an interest in the early detection of amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with a high risk of conversion to AD. Indeed, the hypoperfusion of the associative parietal cortex in MCI patients is considered predictive of a rapid conversion to AD. Different scintigraphic patterns of neurodegenerative dementias could be used for their differential diagnosis.
AP-HP, hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, service de médecine nucléaire, 75004 Paris, France.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20832974
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2010.06.013
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Aphasia, Primary Progressive
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
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