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A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition.
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The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was ae...
Experiments in the field environment have been conducted to study the growth of Panicum repens L., an aquatic plant, in the sewage sludge matrix. The experiments were also carried out to investigate t...
Toilet-paper cellulose with rich but refractory carbon sources, are the main insoluble COD fractions in sewage. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was configured for sewage treatment at room tem...
The application of sewage sludge with biochar as fertilizer may be a new method improves soil properties. Biochar increases of the crops productivity and reduction of bioavailability of contaminants. ...
Gaining the valuable fuels from sewage sludge is a promising method. In this work, the fast pyrolysis characteristics of sewage sludge (SS), wheat straw (WS) and their mixtures in different proportion...
The soap on a rope behavioral trial is a school-randomized trial to determine if a disruptive cue (the soap on a rope hall pass) can influence hand washing behavior for students in Namwala...
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness in removing chemical exposure on hand, we compare removal efficiency of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on hands by hand washing wit...
Introduction. Lymphatic filariasis is a devastating mosquito-transmitted parasitic disease that causes lymphedema or elephantiasis of the leg in 15 million persons, the majority of whom a...
The purpose of this study is to assess the role of dietary fibre in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) treatment, in particular the role of increasing the content of soluble or insoluble fibre...
The investigators evaluated the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene educational Intervention and hand washing with soap on the incidence of diarrhea among under-five children.
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
A genus of gram positive, acetogenic, thermophilic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Known habitats include HOT SPRINGS, horse manure, emu droppings, and sewage SLUDGE.
The sole genus in the family Methanospirillaceae whose organisms are progressively motile by means of polar, tufted flagella. They have been isolated from sewage-sludge and pear waste digesters as well as marine and non-marine habitats.
The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...