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Guanfacine, an alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor agonist, is available in the US as an extended-release (ER) tablet for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years). In two large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 8 and 9 weeks' duration, guanfacine ER (1-4 mg once daily) was effective in reducing the symptoms of ADHD (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention) in children and adolescents. There were significant reductions (denoting improvements) from baseline in ADHD rating scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores (the primary endpoint), compared with placebo. Oppositional symptoms were also significantly reduced from baseline in children with ADHD with oppositional symptoms who received guanfacine ER in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Improvements in ADHD symptoms were sustained over 24 months in two noncomparative, open-label extension trials in children and adolescents who received guanfacine ER at an optimized dosage of 1-4 mg/day. Guanfacine ER was relatively well tolerated in clinical trials in children and adolescents. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were somnolence-related, and tended to resolve over time.
Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand. firstname.lastname@example.org
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A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a sub-type of ADHD - symptoms of ADHD include: a short attenti...