Tramadol and caffeine produce synergistic interactions on antinociception measured in a formalin model.
Summary of "Tramadol and caffeine produce synergistic interactions on antinociception measured in a formalin model."
Drug combinations have been used in clinical practice for the main purpose of increasing therapeutic effect efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the antinociceptive effect of tramadol and caffeine administered separately or in combination, as well as their synergistic interaction. The formalin test was used. Nociceptive behavior was evaluated by flinching response of the formalin-treated paw. Rats were divided into five groups and received tramadol alone (4.9 - 49.6mg/kg, s.c.), caffeine alone (1 - 17.8mg/kg, p.o.), or combinations of tramadol (4.9, 8.8, 15.6 and 20.8mg/kg, s.c.) and caffeine (1, 3.16 and 10mg/kg, p.o.). Tramadol showed dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in both phases of the formalin test. Caffeine only presented antinociceptive effect in the second phase and this effect was also dose-dependent. In Phase 1, combinations of tramadol and caffeine showed antinociceptive effect similar to that of tramadol alone. In Phase 2, the dose-response curve shifted to the left with the combination of tramadol and each dose of caffeine. Synergism analysis resulted in synergistic effect in ten combinations and antagonism in two combinations. In conclusion, the synergism observed in the majority of tramadol and caffeine combinations used in this study suggests that this drug combination is useful in the treatment of pain.
Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima, Colima, México. Av. 25 de Julio No. 965, Col. Villa San Sebastian, Colima, Col. México. C.P. 28045.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837047
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2010.09.004
It is considered that natural products used in folk medicine can potentiate the effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological interaction between ursolic acid, a triterpen...
This study aimed to examine the effect of caffeine on hemodynamics after a resistance exercise session. Fifteen subjects completed two randomly ordered experimental resistance exercise sessions 45 min...
The impact of caffeine on the behavioral effects of ethanol, including ethanol consumption and abuse, has become a topic of great interest due to the rise in popularity of the so-called energy drinks....
We report a young man who had received tramadol for pain control and experienced an uncomfortable sensation in both legs immediately after tramadol withdrawal that worsened at rest and at night, and w...
Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance...
The Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of a wide range of drugs and other xenobiotics. Genetic variants of the encoding P450 genes have shown to influence the rate ...
The objective of this observational study is to assess improvement of quality of life in the patients who are administered Tramadol 37.5mg/Acetaminophen 325mg tablets for 10~14 weeks accor...
A Comparison of the Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Once Daily Tramadol OAD Tablets to Twice Daily Tramadol BID for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee (Extension Protocol) and Open Label Safety Follow-Up
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term safety (up to one year) of Tramadol Once-A-Day (OAD) tablets at the highest doses: 200-400 mg
It is often assumed that levels of caffeine found in ‘decaffeinated’ beverages are below any psychopharmacological threshold. However, recent findings indicate that caffeine doses as l...
The study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical performance in healthy citizens aged over 70 years following eight hours of abstinence from caffeine containing drinks and foods. ...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.