Human Kallikrein 6 Cerebrospinal Levels are Elevated in Multiple Sclerosis.
Summary of "Human Kallikrein 6 Cerebrospinal Levels are Elevated in Multiple Sclerosis."
The protease, human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (hK6) is derived from activated macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and may contribute to pathology observed in multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we compared serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein concentrations of human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 derived from neurological controls and patients diagnosed with advanced multiple sclerotic disease. Mean serum levels of human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 were similar in neurological controls and patients diagnosed with relapsing-remitting (RR), secondary progressive (SP) and primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis with mean levels ranging from 3.5 to 3.75 ng/ml. Patients diagnosed with advanced multiple sclerosis showed mean CSF levels (29 ng/ml) that were significantly higher than neurological controls (25.5 ng/ml). Determining CSF concentrations of human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 may therefore have diagnostic value in MS.
Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5, Canada. George.Robertson@dal.ca.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current drug discovery technologies
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive
A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
Multiple protein bands serving as markers of specific ANTIBODIES and detected by ELECTROPHORESIS of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID or serum. The bands are most often seen during inflammatory or immune processes and are found in most patients with MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A3 and HLA-B7 and is strongly associated with Goodpasture syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and narcolepsy.
Retrovirus-like particles containing the multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus RNA, significantly found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis, have been preliminarily assoc...
It has been proposed by Zamboni and colleagues that multiple sclerosis is caused by chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, a term used to describe ultrasound-detectable abnormalities in the anato...
Multiple Sclerosis is the most common non-traumatic disorder of the central nervous system and is generally regarded as an immune-mediated disorder that occurs in young adults. Since cerebrospinal flu...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), which was previously considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), is characterized by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. It has...
Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) often include elevated IgG production in intrathecal space presenting as oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In most demye...
The purpose of this study is to study safety and efficacy of natalizumab treatment of primary and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. This will be done by measuring the effect of tr...
To determine whether low total urinary kallikrein activity was prospectively associated with new hypertension onset or elevated blood pressures.
Urinary kallikrein excretion is known to increase in patients with nephrotic syndrome and sick cell disease, but decrease in patients with chronic kidney disease or uremia. Some of authors...
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and tolerability of single ascending doses, as well as of repeated administrations of GNbAC1 in MS patients. Scientific research has show...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether raising low levels of the natural antioxidant uric acid by the administration of a precursor, inosine, has any therapeutic effect on the p...