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Background. A 55-year-old man presented with 4 months of chronic meningitis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and extreme hypoglycorrhachia-an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A previous neurological work-up had revealed no noteworthy abnormalities. Despite the brief improvements that were seen after numerous trials of antibiotics and corticosteroids, the symptoms relapsed soon after corticosteroids were discontinued. Lumbar puncture revealed cholesterol crystals in the CSF and imaging studies revealed a sickle-shaped sacrum, partial rectal stenosis, and a communicating presacral meningocele with an epidermoid-dermoid mass. Extreme hypoglycorrhachia seems almost always to be bacterial in origin, but its differential diagnosis is, nevertheless, extensive. The definition, physiology, pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of hypoglycorrhachia are reviewed here.Investigations. Physical examination, laboratory testing, multiple imaging studies including CT and MRI of the brain and spinal cord, as well as myelography and CSF analysis.Diagnosis. Cholesterol-induced leptomeningitis in a patient with Currarino syndrome, a triad that consists of sacral bone defects, congenital hindgut anomaly, and a presacral tumor.Management. The patient was initially treated with multiple antimicrobials and steroids. However, once the cholesterol crystals and communicating presacral cyst were identified, the condition was successfully managed with surgically resection of the cyst.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control & Employee Health, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Neurology
We studied occurrence, disease course, and prognosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in HIV-infected adults in the Netherlands.
In experimental studies, the outcome of bacterial meningitis has been related to the severity of inflammation in the subarachnoid space. Corticosteroids reduce this inflammatory response.
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Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).
Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma. It is an important structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is establishes proper membrane permeability and fluidity. Cholesterol ...
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