Comparison of two infusion rates of antithrombin concentrate in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Summary of "Comparison of two infusion rates of antithrombin concentrate in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery."
Antithrombin concentrate (AT) is used to treat heparin resistance (HR) in cardiac surgery. It is usually given slowly due to the fear of anaphylaxis. This may delay cardiac catheterisation and the start of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). HR is often defined as the failure to reach or maintain a target activated clotting time (ACT) despite a standard dose of heparin. It is not generally possible to predict which patients will display HR, although there are known risk factors. Routine early administration of AT before heparinisation is probably not cost-effective. Infusing AT relatively quickly after demonstrating HR may be more cost-effective, while not delaying surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and side effects of a faster infusion of AT.
Forty patients undergoing elective heart surgery were included and randomised to two groups in a double-blind fashion. Each group received 1000 IU of AT intravenously (IV). One group received a slow infusion (100 IU/min) before full-dose heparinisation. The other group received a fast infusion (250 IU/min). Haemodynamic and respiratory data were recorded. Any adverse effects were noted. Thrombin-antithrombin, anti-Xa and antithrombin levels in plasma were measured.
No anaphylaxis occurred in either group. No differences were found regarding haemodynamics, respiration or laboratory results. Two patients experienced major haemorrhage and recovered; there were two deaths, thought to be unrelated to the study drugs.
AT can be infused at a rate of 250 IU/min. This is faster than the current recommendation of 100 IU/min. This rate of infusion allows restricting AT infusion to those patients who display HR, without delaying surgery. Optimal anticoagulant therapy for CPB probably includes point-of-care measurement of ACT and plasma AT and small, but rapid, infusions of AT in heparin-resistant patients.
Orebro University Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Orebro, Sweden.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20627942
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267659110377677
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
Condition of low SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE that develops secondary to other conditions such as ANAPHYLAXIS; SEPSIS; SURGICAL SHOCK; and SEPTIC SHOCK. Vasoplegia that develops during or post surgery (e.g., CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS) is called postoperative vasoplegic syndrome or vasoplegic syndrome.
An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, Antithrombin I (see FIBRIN) and ANTITHROMBIN III appear to be of major importance.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.