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Schoenfeld, BJ. The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 24(x): 000-000, 2010-The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains. It has been shown that many factors mediate the hypertrophic process and that mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress all can play a role in exercise-induced muscle growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to exercise training and (b) to draw conclusions from the research as to the optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth.
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This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes of resistance training (RT) but how hypertrophy is modulated and the mechanisms regulating it are still unknown. To investigate how muscle hyper...
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, lon...
The compound motor action potential (CMAP) represents the summated action potentials of all stimulated motor endplates and potentially reflects muscle hypertrophy and increased muscle contractions. Si...
Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition.
The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) and protein su...
Regular engagement in resistance exercise training elicits many health benefits including improvement to muscular strength, hypertrophy and insulin sensitivity, though the underpinning molecular mecha...
Studies in animals have shown that beta2-adrenoceptor activation with selective agonists regulates protein metabolism and muscle growth in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue. These effects...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of dietary cholesterol administered as whole egg or egg white (control)on muscle mass gain with resistance training in a young old popula...
The role of cAMP signaling mediated by beta2-adrenergic stimulation with agonists has been well-studied in skeletal muscles of animals. Studies in humans are scant and the scope of the pre...
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of pre operative resistance training on subjects scheduled for total hip arthroplasty due to primary osteoarthritis. B...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 12 week progressive resistance training during haemodialysis on muscle quantity and physical functioning in chronic kidney dise...
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...