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Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived hormone, has been studied intensively for the past decade because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-diabetic properties. Recent advances suggest that adiponectin also plays an important role in the development and progression of various cancers, especially obesity-related cancers. In this review, the authors focus on the potential role of adiponectin in breast cancer, an obesity- and endocrine-associated tumor. Epidemiological studies have shown that plasma adiponectin level is a risk factor for breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed on both breast cancer line cells and tumor tissues. Furthermore, exogenous adiponectin has exhibited therapeutic potential in animal models. Underlying mechanisms include the inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis, the regulation of tumorigenic-related factors, and the suppression of angiogenesis. The signaling pathways linking adiponectin with tumorigenesis might provide potential drug targets for the future. However, more convincing evidence is needed to fully elucidate the exact role of adiponectin in breast cancer, since both its beneficial effects and possible mechanisms remain controversial.
Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Av. Padre Tomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau, China, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
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Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
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