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Enhancing muscle growth while reducing fat accumulation improves the efficiency of animal production. The fetal stage is crucial for skeletal muscle development. Fetal muscle development involves myogenesis, adipogenesis and fibrogenesis from mesenchymal multipotent cells (MC), which are negatively affected by maternal nutrient deficiencies. Enhancing myogenesis increases the lean to fat ratio of animals, enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis increases intramuscular fat that is indispensible for the superior eating properties of meat because fat is the major contributor to meat flavor. The promotion of fibrogenesis leads to the accumulation of connective tissue, which contributes to the background toughness of meat and is undesirable. Thus, it is essential to regulate MC differentiation in order to enhance lean growth and improve meat quality. To date, our understanding of mechanisms regulating the lineage commitment of MC is limited. In this review, we first discuss the impact of maternal nutrient deficiency on fetal development, offspring body composition and meat quality. Because maternal nutrition affects fetal muscle through altering MC differentiation, we then review several important extracellular morphogens regulating MC differentiation, including hedgehog, Wingless and Int (Wnt) and bone morphogenic proteins. Possible involvement of epigenetic modifications associated with histone deacetylases class IIa and histone acetyltransferase, p300, in MC differentiation is also discussed.
Developmental Biology Group, Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie 82071.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of animal science
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Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A complication of pregnancy in which the UMBILICAL CORD wraps around the fetal neck once or multiple times. In some cases, cord entanglement around fetal neck may not affect pregnancy outcome significantly. In others, the nuchal cord may lead to restricted fetal blood flow, oxygen transport, fetal development, fetal movement, and complicated delivery at birth.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Specialized proteins that are preferentially expressed during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
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