Neuropathic pain in diabetes-evidence for a central mechanism.
Summary of "Neuropathic pain in diabetes-evidence for a central mechanism."
Hyperexcitability of and aberrant spontaneous impulse generation by damaged first-order sensory neurons and their peripheral axons are well-established processes that strongly contribute to pain associated with diabetic neuropathy. Studies in the past 5 years, however, suggest that, as in many neuropathic pain disorders, central neuropathic mechanisms can also contribute to pain experienced with diabetes. These studies have demonstrated that thalamic dysfunction occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus, and that in experimental models of this disease neurons in the ventral posterolateral thalamus can become hyperexcitable, firing at abnormally high frequencies and generating aberrant spontaneous activity. In this article, we discuss these findings, which suggest that thalamic neurons can act as central generators or amplifiers of pain in diabetes.
Yale University Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, 950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Neurology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20625378
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2010.90
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Receptors, Purinergic P2x4
A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.
A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
Receptors, Purinergic P2x3
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
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