Maturation of synaptic partners: functional phenotype and synaptic organization tuned in synchrony.
Summary of "Maturation of synaptic partners: functional phenotype and synaptic organization tuned in synchrony."
Maturation of principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) was assessed in the context of the developmental organization and activity of their presynaptic afferents, which grow rapidly to form calyces of Held and to establish mono-innervation between postnatal days (P)2-4. MNTB neurons and their inputs were studied from embryonic day (E)17, when the nucleus was first discernable, until P14 after the onset of hearing. Using a novel slice preparation containing portions of the cochlea, cochlear nucleus and MNTB, we determined that synaptic inputs form onto MNTB neurons at E17 and stimulation of the cochlear nucleus can evoke APs and Ca2+ signals. We analyzed converging inputs onto individual MNTB neurons and found that competition among inputs was resolved quickly, as a single large input, typically larger than 4 nA, emerged from P3-P4. During calyx growth but before hearing onset, MNTB cells acquired their mature, phasic firing property and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a coincident increase in low threshold K+ channel mRNA. These events occurred in concert with an increase in somatic surface area and a 7-fold increase in the current threshold (30 to >200 pA) required to evoke action potentials (APs), as input resistance (R(in)) settled from embryonic values greater than 1 GΩ to approximately 200 MΩ. We postulate that the postsynaptic transition from hyper- to decreased excitability during calyx growth could provide a mechanism to establish the mature 1:1 innervation by selecting the winning calyceal input based on synaptic strength. By comparing biophysical maturation of the postsynaptic cell to alterations in presynaptic organization, we propose that maturation of synaptic partners is coordinated by synaptic activity in a process that likely generalizes to other neural systems.
West Virginia University.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of physiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20855433
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198564
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein 2
A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.
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