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5×5 CMOS capacitive sensor array for detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Summary of "5×5 CMOS capacitive sensor array for detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine."

This work presents miniaturized CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) capacitive sensors for detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) down to the sub-fM range. Sensing resolution is significantly enhanced by monolithic sensor integration to reduce the parasitic effect and the use of sub-μm interdigitated microelectrodes as the sensing interface. The 5×5 sensor array contains five designs of different electrode sizes and each design has five sensors. The positive charges produced from protonation of boronate and amino group after immobilization of 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA) result in an increase of the electrode-analyte capacitance. Then the negative charges produced after binding of CPBA and DA molecules decrease the electrode-analyte capacitance. Signal transduction is achieved through a CMOS readout circuit whose output frequency is inversely proportional to the capacitance. Experimental results showed the ratios of average percentage capacitance changes of the experiment groups over those of the control groups were all larger than one for the five designs at DA concentration of 0.1fM. Selectivity against the non-analyte species, such as tyramine, has also been demonstrated.

Affiliation

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC; Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC; Institute of NanoEngineering and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Biosensors & bioelectronics
ISSN: 1873-4235
Pages:

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.

A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLATE CYCLASE.

A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLATE CYCLASE.

The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.

Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.

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