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Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.
This article was published in the following journal.
Ectopic thyroid tissue is an abnormality caused by aberrant thyroid gland embryogenesis during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its final position. The most frequent place of ect...
Introduction To compare the projectional surface anatomy of healthy individuals in an adult population with those with a thyroid mass, using computed tomography (CT). Methods Sixteen slice CT images o...
A 67-year-old man was referred with a history of a right-sided neck lump and dysphonia, secondary to a lesion in the thyroid gland. After undergoing a total thyroidectomy, he was found to have an exce...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the most common and serious complications associated with thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Although routine visual identification of the RLN is conside...
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) coexisting with ectopic thyroid is rare. Here we report a case of RTH with ectopic thyroid. A ten-year-old girl had been misdiagnosed as congenital hypothyroidism a...
Ultrasound (US)tissue elastography has recently been found to have a number of clinical applications in the assessment of soft tissue disease for example, in breast and thyroid pathology. ...
This study is expected to provide novel data regarding potential structural and functional changes of the thyroid gland in morbidly obese adults following significant weight loss through b...
Resistance to thyrotropin (RTSH) is a condition of impaired responsiveness of the thyroid gland to TSH, characterized by elevated TSH, low or normal thyroid hormone levels, and hypoplastic...
Regular thyroid diagnostics versus augmented thyroid work-up with additional I-124 PET/US fusion for metabolic-sonographic nodule allocation in patients with benign thyroid diseases
This study intends to examine how a common genetic pattern affects thyroid function. Recent studies have demonstrated that a substance (enzyme) produced by a gene has an important role in ...
Defective development of the THYROID GLAND. This concept includes thyroid agenesis (aplasia), hypoplasia, or an ectopic gland. Clinical signs usually are those of CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
An aggressive THYROID GLAND malignancy which generally occurs in IODINE-deficient areas in people with previous thyroid pathology such as GOITER. It is associated with CELL DEDIFFERENTIATION of THYROID CARCINOMA (e.g., FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA; PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER). Typical initial presentation is a rapidly growing neck mass which upon metastasis is associated with DYSPHAGIA; NECK PAIN; bone pain; DYSPNEA; and NEUROLOGIC DEFICITS.
Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...