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Carnitine is an essential cofactor for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation that is actively reabsorbed by the luminal transporter Octn2 (Slc22a5). Because the nephrotoxic agent cisplatin causes urinary loss of carnitine in humans, we hypothesized that cisplatin may affect Octn2 function. EXPERIMENTAL
Excretion of carnitine and acetylcarnitine was measured in urine collected from mice with or without cisplatin administration. The transport of carnitine was assessed in cells that were transfected with OCT1 or OCT2. The effect of cisplatin treatment on gene expression was analyzed using a mouse GeneChip array and validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR.
In wild-type mice, urinary carnitine excretion at baseline was ∼3-fold higher than in mice lacking the basolateral cisplatin transporters Oct1 and Oct2 [Oct1/2(-/-) mice], indicating that carnitine itself undergoes basolateral uptake into the kidney. Transport of carnitine by OCT2, but not OCT1, was confirmed in transfected cells. We also found that cisplatin caused an increase in the urinary excretion of carnitine and acetylcarnitine in wild-type mice but not in Oct1/2(-/-) mice, suggesting that tubular transport of cisplatin is a prerequisite for this phenomenon. Cisplatin did not directly inhibit the transport of carnitine by Octn2 but downregulated multiple target genes of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, including Slc22a5, in the kidney of wild-type mice that were absent in Oct1/2(-/-) mice.
Our study shows a pivotal role of Oct1 and Oct2 in cisplatin-related disturbances in carnitine homeostasis. We postulate that this phenomenon is triggered by deactivation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α and leads to deregulation of carnitine-shuttle genes. Clin Cancer Res; 16(19); 4789-99. ©2010 AACR.
Authors' Affiliations: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Western Australian Biomedical Research Institute, School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin U
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 220.127.116.11.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROXYLATION of gamma-butyrobetaine to L-CARNITINE. It is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-CARNITINE and is dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate; IRON; ASCORBIC ACID; and OXYGEN.
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