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In order to investigate the methylation status of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 gene (RAR-β2) in breast carcinoma in relation to gene expression and clinicopathological parameters of patients with breast cancer, expression of RAR-β2 gene and methylation status were analyzed in invasive carcinoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, fibroadenoma specimens, and normal tissues. Our findings showed that RAR-β2 expression was lower in the breast cancer compared to normal tissue and fibroadenoma. The methylation rate of RAR-β2 in breast cancer and precancerous lesions of breast cancer were higher than that of normal tissues. Hypermethylation may be an initial step in breast carcinogenesis.
Department of Breast Oncology, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, 300060, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
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Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signalling pathways.
The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.
A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.
An orphan nuclear receptor that is closely related to members of the thyroid-steroid receptor gene family. It was originally indentified in NERVE CELLS and may play a role in mediation of NERVE GROWTH FACTOR-induced CELL DIFFERENTIATION. However, several other functions have been attributed to this protein including the positive and negative regulation of APOPTOSIS.
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