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In order to investigate the methylation status of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 gene (RAR-β2) in breast carcinoma in relation to gene expression and clinicopathological parameters of patients with breast cancer, expression of RAR-β2 gene and methylation status were analyzed in invasive carcinoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, fibroadenoma specimens, and normal tissues. Our findings showed that RAR-β2 expression was lower in the breast cancer compared to normal tissue and fibroadenoma. The methylation rate of RAR-β2 in breast cancer and precancerous lesions of breast cancer were higher than that of normal tissues. Hypermethylation may be an initial step in breast carcinogenesis.
Department of Breast Oncology, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, 300060, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
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Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that resides in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It catalyzes the conversion of trans-RETINOIC ACID to 4-hydroxyretinoic acid.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signalling pathways.
A nuclear receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the RARA gene. It belongs to a family of transcription regulators of ligand-responsive regulatory proteins which include steroid hormone receptors. In addition to a C-terminal ligand-binding domain, these nuclear receptors contain a highly-conserved N-terminal zinc-finger domain that mediates binding ligand-responsive elements.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme family whose members function in the metabolism of RETINOIC ACID. It includes RETINOIC ACID 4-HYDROXYLASE.
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