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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to 7 capsular types has been highly effective in the US since its introduction in 2000. The same vaccine was adopted by the UK in 2006. Ongoing surveillance since 1995 of invasive pneumococcal disease in Oxfordshire, UK, allowed assessment of the impact of vaccine intervention. The vaccine significantly reduced invasive pneumococcal disease among the target group, children less than 2 years; incidence rate ratio (IRR)=0.62 [95%CI 0.43-0.90] (p=0.008) comparing the 3 years pre- and post-implementation with a residual incidence of 22.4/100,000 children. The reduction was even greater when comparing 11 years pre with the 3 years post implementation of vaccine; IRR=0.53 [0.39- 0.70] p<0.0001. There was a marked direct effect of the vaccine evidenced by substantial reductions in the 7 serotypes contained in the vaccine. There was also a clear reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease for those serotypes contained in the vaccine among those older than 2 years when comparing both the 3 and 11 year pre PCV7 time periods with IRR=0.57 [0.47-0.69] p<0.0001 and IRR=0.50 [0.43-0.58] p<0.0001 respectively, indicating a strong herd effect. There was a significant, though moderate, rise in the serotypes not contained in the vaccine, with clear evidence for replacement in some serotypes.
1 University of Oxford;
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of medical microbiology
Widespread use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children has led to significant reduction in pneumococcal disease in children and adults. However, diseases caused by serotypes not ...
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and mostly presents as pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis. A notable portion of IPD cases is vaccine preventable and the pneumoco...
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The availability of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines covering a broader range of serotypes, has seen many countries introduce these into their national immunisation program. When transitioning from...
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A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
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A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...