Adults' use of subtraction by addition.
Summary of "Adults' use of subtraction by addition."
The present study investigates adults' use of addition to solve two-digit subtractions. Inspired by research on single-digit arithmetic, we first examined regression models in which different problem characteristics predicted participants' reaction times. Second, we compared performance on two-digit subtractions presented in 2 presentation formats, i.e., the standard subtraction format (81-37=.) and an addition format (37+.=81). Both methods lead to the conclusion that the participants switched between direct subtraction and subtraction by addition depending on the relative size of the subtrahend: If the subtrahend was smaller than the difference, direct subtraction was mainly used; if the subtrahend was larger than the difference, subtraction by addition was the dominant strategy. However, this performance pattern was only observed when the distance between the subtrahend and the difference was large; when the subtrahend and the difference were close to each other, there was no subtrahend-dependent selection of direct subtraction vs. subtraction by addition. These data indicate that theoretical models of people's strategy choices in subtraction should include the relative size of the subtrahend as an important factor in the strategy selection process.
Centre for Instructional Psychology and Technology, K.U.Leuven, Belgium.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta psychologica
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20864069
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.08.007
The essential aspects of zero-temperature grand-canonical ensemble density-functional theory are reviewed in the context of spin-density-functional theory and are used to highlight the assumption of s...
Trapeziometacarpal joint pain is often associated with a dynamic adduction deformity of the thumb metacarpal, combined with radial subluxation at the base of the thumb metacarpal, due to trapeziometac...
The processing of numbers has been shown to induce shifts of spatial attention in simple probe detection tasks, with small numbers orienting attention to the left and large numbers to the right side o...
Retrospective study of radiologic records of patients who underwent lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) procedures.
The objective of the present study was to determine whether increased attentional demands influence the assessment of ankle joint proprioceptive ability in young adults. We used a dual-task condition,...
This trial is to show the diagnostic efficacy of Gadovist for contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the arteries.
No significant differences in observed motion artifacts or pain reported during peripheral DSA performed for diagnostic and/or endovascular therapeutic purposes.
We believe a readily available drink containing a high dose of probiotics has the potential to improve compliance through many of these mechanisms. This product also has the potential to p...
Intervention study in malnourished adults to assess whether a nutritional supplement given for 8 weeks in addition to the subject's usual diet improves body weight, body composition, bioch...
The purpose of this Proof of Concept study is to determine the effects of BYM338 on skeletal muscle volume, mass, and strength and patient function (gait speed) in non-demented elderly adu...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).