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The porphyries are a group of metabolic disorders characterized by deficiencies in the activity of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of heme. In erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), in the majority of cases an autosomal dominant disease, there is a mutation of the gene that encodes ferrochelatase (FECH). FECH deficiency is associated with increased concentrations of protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, plasma, skin and liver. The prevalence of this inherited disorder oscillates between 1:75 000 and 1:200 000. Clinical manifestations of EPP appear in early infancy upon first exposure to the sun. Nevertheless, approximately 5%-20% of patients with EPP develop liver manifestations. Retention of protoporphyrin in the liver is associated with cholestatic phenomena and oxidative stress that predisposes to hepatobiliary disease of varying degrees of severity, such as cholelithiasis, mild parenchymal liver disease, progressive hepatocellular disease with end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. Liver damage is the major risk in EPP patients, so surveillance and frequent clinical and biochemical liver follow-up is mandatory. The diagnostic approach consists in detecting increased levels of protoporphyrin, decreased activity of FECH and genetic analysis of the FECH gene. A variety of non-surgical therapeutic approaches have been adopted for the management of EPP associated with liver disease, but none of these has been shown to be unequivocally efficacious. Nevertheless, some may have a place in preparing patients for liver transplantation. Liver transplantation does not correct the constitutional deficiency of FECH. Consequently, there is a risk of recurrence of liver disease after liver transplantation as a result of continuing overproduction of protoporphyrin. Some authors recommend that bone marrow transplantation should be considered in liver allograft recipients to prevent recurrence of hepatic disease.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Diego de León 62, Planta 3, Madrid 28006, Spain.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: World journal of gastroenterology : WJG
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare hereditary disease that can sometimes cause acute liver failure based on cholestasis. Acute liver failure is a fatal complication and is associated with E...
The hereditary porphyrias comprise a group of eight metabolic disorders of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Each porphyria is caused by abnormal function at a separate enzymatic step resulting in a spec...
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OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the long-term efficacy and safety of L-cysteine in the prevention photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
The initial objective of this protocol is to assemble a well-documented group of patients with confirmed diagnoses of the erythropoietic protoporphyrias, including autosomal recessive Eryt...
OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the efficacy of cysteine hydrochloride in preventing or decreasing photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of exercise and heat on the light sensibility of patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria
This is a randomized placebo-controlled study to be conducted in two parallel study arms for a six month period (three doses). Approximately 10 eligible patients per center will be enrolle...
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of FERROCHELATASE (heme synthetase) in both the LIVER and the BONE MARROW, the last enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include mainly neurological symptoms, rarely cutaneous lesions, and elevated levels of protoporphyrin and COPROPORPHYRINS in the feces.
An autosomal recessive porphyria that is due to a deficiency of UROPORPHYRINOGEN III SYNTHASE in the BONE MARROW; also known as congenital erythropoietic porphyria. This disease is characterized by SPLENOMEGALY; ANEMIA; photosensitivity; cutaneous lesions; accumulation of hydroxymethylbilane; and increased excretion of UROPORPHYRINS and COPROPORPHYRINS.
A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.
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