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The oxygen isotope ratio (δ(18)O value) of aragonite fish otoliths is dependent on the temperature and the δ(18)O value of the ambient water and can thus reflect the environmental history of a fish. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) offers a spatial-resolution advantage over conventional acid-digestion techniques for stable isotope analysis of otoliths, especially given their compact nature.
People are using increasing amounts of siloxanes that ultimately end up in landfills and then in landfill gas and biogas digesters. Their presence poses difficulties for industries seeking to utilize the energy content of landfill and biogas, as the combustion process oxidises silicon to silicon dioxide that in turn damages engine parts. Rapid, efficient and accurate methods are needed to quantify their presence.
Stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C, δ(18)O values) analyses of carbonates can be biased by CO(2) release from organic impurities. This is most critical for carbonate isotope analyses from bulk sediments containing comparably high amounts of organic matter (OM). Several methods have been developed to remove OM prior to analyses, but none of them can be universally applied. Moreover, pretreatment methods cause isotopic bias in themselves and should probably best be avoided. Thus, it is essential to have indicator...
Electrospray ionization on porous spraying tips for direct sample analysis by mass spectrometry: enhanced detection sensitivity and selectivity using hydrophobic/hydrophilic materials as spraying tips.
Despite various porous materials having been widely adopted as spraying tips for direct sample analysis using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), the effect of surface property and porosity of spraying tip materials on their analytical performances is not clear. Investigation of their relationships could provide insight into the proper choice and/or design of spraying tip materials for direct sample analysis.
Sulfonamides such as sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) are among the most important antibiotic families due to their extensive use in veterinary medicine. The prediction of their fate under solar irradiation through the identification of the generated metabolites is required. However, unambiguous structural characterizations often remain a challenge particularly when several isomers could match with the same MS(2) data.
Over the last decade, the high lateral resolution and imaging capabilities of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have increasingly stimulated interest in studying organic molecules in complex environmental materials. However, unlike with the established mass spectrometric techniques, the use of ToF-SIMS in the biogeosciences is still hampered by a lack of reference spectra of the relevant biomarker compounds. Here we present and interpret ToF-SIMS reference spectra of ten different cy...
The absence of an agreed-upon δ(17) O value for the primary reference water SLAP leads to significant discrepancies in the reported values of δ(17) O and the parameter (17) O(excess) . The accuracy of δ(17) O and (17) O(excess) values is significantly improved if the measurements are normalized using a two-point calibration, following the convention for δ(2) H and δ(18) O values.
Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection and elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for characterizing and detecting the authenticity of commercial essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill.
The essential oil of Rosa damascena Mill. is known for its fine perfumery application, use in cosmetic preparations and for several pharmacological activities. Due to its high value, it can be easily adulterated with flavors or cheaper oils. This study is aimed at a detailed phytochemical characterization of commercial samples of R. damascena essential oil and at their authenticity assessment.
The measurement of the abundances of minor isotopologues by mass spectrometry requires correction of subtle non-linearities in the mass spectrometer that cause deviations in the relationship between actual and measured isotope ratios. Here we show that negative backgrounds on the Faraday cups recording the minor ion beams are the cause of the observed non-linearities in the measurement of CO(2) isotopologues, and propose a new correction procedure for clumped isotope measurements.
With the rapid development of ambient mass spectrometry, the hybrid laser-based ambient ionization methods which can generate multiply charged ions of large biomolecules and also characterize small molecules with good signal-to-noise in both positive and negative ion modes are of particular interest.
Indolone-N-oxide derivatives possess interesting biological properties. The analysis of these compounds using mass spectrometry (MS) may lead to interference or under-estimation due to the tendency of the N-oxides to lose oxygen. All the previous works focused only on the temperature of the heated parts (vaporizer and ion-transfer tube) of the mass spectrometer without investigating other parameters. This work is extended to the investigation of other parameters.
The direct detection of organic molecules by mass spectrometry requires ionization methods which are compatible with ambient conditions. A relatively new strategy is the use of a free low-temperature plasma beam for ionization. The objective is to design a safe and adjustable plasma beam to enable optimal ionization and desorption parameters for specific molecules.
In situ analytical techniques that require the storage and delivery of reagents (e.g., acidic or basic solutions) have inherent durability limitations. The reagentless electrolytic technique for pH modification presented here was developed primarily to ease and to extend the longevity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) determinations in seawater, but can also be used for other analytical methods. DIC, a primary carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) system variable along with alkalinity, controls seawater pH, carbonate s...
Gymnodimines (GYMs) are fast-acting toxins that belong to the cyclic imine group, a subclass of lipophilic marine toxins. GYMs are considered to be emerging toxins but have not yet been linked to incidents of human poisoning, Limited knowledge on the metabolism of GYMs means that a proper risk assessment has not been possible and caution must be taken when establishing the relevance of GYMs in terms of food safety of marine products.
Clenbuterol (4-amino-α-[(tert-butylamino)methyl]-3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol) is approved for human and veterinary use primarily for the treatment of pulmonary afflictions. Despite the authorized administration in cases of medical indications, the misuse of clenbuterol in animal husbandry as well as elite and amateur sport has frequently been reported, arguably due to growth-promoting properties. Due to various recent incidences of doping control specimens containing clenbuterol, strategies towards the disc...
Bromadiolone and brodifacoum, two common anticoagulant rodenticides, are involved in the majority of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning cases in humans in China. Hair analysis can provide long-term information on drug exposure. A method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of bromadiolone and brodifacoum in human hair.
Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family which has been shown to play a role in inflammation and in the regulation of angiogenesis. In general, chemokines are susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in amino and carboxy terminal regions, which usually results in dramatic changes to the chemokine bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to identify various platelet factor-4 (PF4) isoforms caused by proteolytic processing and to quantify their levels in normal serum.
The 19th century excavation of an exceptionally well-preserved Early Bronze Age high status log-coffin burial from northern England, dated to 2200-2020 BC, yielded a 'food residue' collected from the inside of an accompanying bark vessel. This residue contained fibrous stitching that was used to hold the bark walls of the vessel together, first described as animal sinews, although the surviving material clearly contains animal hairs. Protein sequencing by soft ionisation mass spectrometry should identify th...
An altered gastric emptying (GE) rate has been implicated in the aetiology of obesity. The (13)C-octanoic acid breath test (OBT) is frequently used to measure GE, and the cumulative percentage of (13)C recovered (cPDR) is a common outcome measure. However, true cPDR in breath is dependent on accurate measurement of carbon dioxide production rate (VCO(2)). The current study aimed to quantify differences in the (13)C OBT results obtained using directly measured VCO(2) (VCO(2DM)) compared with (i) predicted fr...
Cleavage of peptide bonds C-terminal to tyrosine and tryptophan after electrochemical oxidation may become a complementary approach to chemical and enzymatic cleavage. A chemical labeling approach specifically targeting reactive cleavage products is presented here and constitutes a promising first step towards the development of a new proteomics workflow.
The aflatoxin mycotoxins are particularly hazardous to health when present in food. Therefore, from an analytical point of view, knowledge of their mass spectrometric properties is essential. The aim of the present study was to describe the collision-induced dissociation behavior of the four most common aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2.
The BCL2 gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein (25 kDa) which regulates the apoptotic death of cells. There is a 25-nucleotide G-rich sequence in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the BCL2 mRNA, which can adopt a G-quadruplex structure. Small molecules which could tightly bind to this structure have a potential function in the regulation of the expression of the BCL2 mRNA.
The integrity of the biological phosphate oxygen isotope (δ(18)O(p) ) signal is thought to be contingent upon the complete removal of competing sources of oxygen such as associated organic matter. A range of pretreatment methods to purify phosphate material from competing sources of oxygen has been reported, with contradictory evidence on the usefulness and efficiency of one or another. Yet, a systematic comparison of these techniques for bioapatite phosphate has not been conducted.
High-throughput methods of proteomics are essential for identification of proteins in a cell or tissue under certain conditions. Most of these methods require tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A multidimensional approach including predictive chromatography and partial chemical degradation could be a valuable alternative and/or addition to MS/MS.