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04:55 EST 21st December 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 51–75 of 692 from MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

Monday 4th November 1032

West Nile Virus and Other Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2013.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2013 for WNV and other nationally notifiable a...

Sunday 3rd November 1032

Use of MenACWY-CRM Vaccine in Children Aged 2 Through 23 Months at Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23...

Saturday 2nd November 1032

Notes from the Field: Increase in Fentanyl-Related Overdose Deaths - Rhode Island, November 2013-March 2014.

During November 2013-March 2014, twice as many all-intent drug overdose deaths were reported in Rhode Island as were reported during the same period in previous years. Most deaths were among injection-drug users, and a large percentage involved fentanyl, a synthetic opioid that is 50-100 times more potent than morphine. Clusters of fentanyl-related deaths have been reported recently in several states. From April 2005 to March 2007, time-limited active surveillance from CDC and the Drug Enforcement Administr...

Friday 16th February 1026

Medical Costs and Productivity Losses of Cancer Survivors - United States, 2008-2011.

The number of persons in the United States with a history of cancer has increased from 3 million in 1971 to approximately 13.4 million in 2012, representing 4.6% of the population. Given the advances in early detection and treatment of cancer and the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by >30% during the next decade, to approximately 18 million. Cancer survivors face many challenges with medical care follow-up, managing the long-term and late effects of trea...

Thursday 15th February 1026

Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2008-2012.

In 1997, the 22 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) adopted a goal of measles elimination by 2010. To achieve this goal, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) developed a four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage of children with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in every district of each country through routine immunization services, 2) achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage with the second dose...

Wednesday 14th February 1026

Notes from the Field: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers - Africa, 2013.

Long-term travelers to areas where malaria is endemic are at risk for this potentially fatal disease; however, malaria can be prevented through the use of insecticide-treated bednets, mosquito repellents, and chemoprophylaxis. Three options for chemoprophylaxis are available in the Africa region: mefloquine, doxycycline, and atovaquone-proguanil. These options differ by dosing regimen, cost, and side effect profile. Long-term adverse effects of these drugs have been reported rarely.


Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2012.

Despite significant declines during the past 30 years, cigarette smoking among adults in the United States remains widespread, and year-to-year decreases in prevalence have been observed only intermittently in recent years. To assess progress made toward the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1),* this report provides the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years, based on data from t...


Zinc Deficiency-Associated Dermatitis in Infants During a Nationwide Shortage of Injectable Zinc - Washington, DC, and Houston, Texas, 2012-2013.

Injectable zinc, a vital component of parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations, has been in short supply in the United States since late 2012. In December 2012, three premature infants with cholestasis hospitalized in Washington, DC, experienced erosive dermatitis in the diaper area and blisters on their extremities, a condition that can be associated with zinc deficiency. All three infants were receiving PN because they had extreme cholestasis and were unable to be fed by mouth or tube. The PN administered t...


CDC Grand Rounds: A Public Health Approach to Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, and preventable, public health problem in the United States. IPV can involve physical and sexual violence, threats of physical or sexual violence, and psychological abuse, including stalking. It can occur within opposite-sex or same-sex couples and can range from one incident to an ongoing pattern of violence. On average, 24 persons per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States. These numbers underesti...


Notes from the field: acute illness associated with use of pest strips - seven u.s. States and Canada, 2000-2013.

Dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips (DDVP pest strips) are among the few organophosphate products still available for indoor residential use. The residential uses for most other organophosphate products, including most DDVP products, were canceled because they posed unreasonable risks to children. DDVP pest strips act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and nerves of insect pests and are designed to gradually release DDVP vapor for up to 4 months. Acute illnesses in humans associated wi...


Lung cancer incidence trends among men and women - United States, 2005-2009.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and the second most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding skin cancer) among men and women in the United States. Although lung cancer can be caused by environmental exposures, most efforts to prevent lung cancer emphasize tobacco control because 80%-90% of lung cancers are attributed to cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke. One sentinel health consequence of tobacco use is lung cancer, and one way to measure the impact of tobacco control is by examining tren...


Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks - United States, 2009-2010.

Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks result from exposure to infectious pathogens or chemical agents in treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools and hot tubs or spas) or untreated recreational water venues (e.g., lakes and oceans). For 2009-2010, the most recent years for which finalized data are available, public health officials from 28 states and Puerto Rico electronically reported 81 recreational water-associated disease outbreaks to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance Sy...


Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes - United States, 2009-2010.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are excessive accumulations of microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms (phytoplankton) that produce biotoxins or otherwise adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. HABs occur sporadically and often produce a visible algal scum on the water. This report summarizes human health data and water sampling results voluntarily reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) and the Harmful A...


Vital signs: communication between health professionals and their patients about alcohol use - 44 States and the district of columbia, 2011.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol use accounted for an estimated 88,000 deaths in the United States each year during 2006-2010, and $224 billion in economic costs in 2006. Since 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended alcohol misuse screening and behavioral counseling (also known as alcohol screening and brief intervention [ASBI]) for adults to address excessive alcohol use; however, little is known about the prevalence of its implementation. ASBI will also be covered by many he...


Histoplasmosis outbreak associated with the renovation of an old house - quebec, Canada, 2013.

On May 19, 2013, a consulting physician contacted the Laurentian Regional Department of Public Health (Direction de santé publique des Laurentides [DSP]) in Quebec, Canada, to report that two masons employed by the same company to do demolition work were experiencing cough and dyspnea accompanied by fever. Other workers also were said to be ill. DSP initiated a joint infectious disease, environmental health, and occupational health investigation to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak. The invest...


Outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of pulled pork at a church festival - hamilton county, ohio, 2010.

On June 18, 2010, Hamilton County Public Health (HCPH), a local health department in Ohio, began receiving reports of gastrointestinal illness from persons who attended a church festival held during June 11-13 in a suburban community of Hamilton County. HCPH investigated and confirmed the existence of a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of pulled pork prepared in a private home and sold at the church festival. Sixty-four attendees with gastroenteritis were identified. Salmonella enterica seroty...


CDC Grand Rounds: Evidence-Based Injury Prevention.

Approximately 5.8 million persons die from injuries each year, accounting for 10% of all deaths worldwide. In the United States, 180,000 persons die each year from injuries, making the category the country's leading cause of death for those aged 1-44 years and the leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 65 years. Injuries also result in 2.8 million hospitalizations and 29 million emergency department visits each year in the United States. Motor vehicle crashes, falls, homicides, suicides, d...


Notes from the Field: New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Associated with Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Illinois, 2013.

Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)* are increasing among patients in medical facilities. CRE that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have been responsible for much of the increase in the United States. However, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing CRE have the potential to add to this burden. Since first reported in 2009, through 2012, 27 patients with NDM-producing CRE have been confirmed by CDC from isolates submitted by state laboratories. Since January...


Trends in the prevalence of excess dietary sodium intake - United States, 2003-2010.

Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of U.S. deaths. Monitoring the prevalence of excess sodium intake is essential to provide the evidence for public health interventions and to track reductions in sodium intake, yet few reports exist. Reducing population sodium intake is a national priority, and monitoring the amount of sodium consumed adjusted for energy intake (sodium density or sodium in milligrams divided by calor...


Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning from a military unit lunch party - United States, july 2012.

On July 30, 2012, the emergency department at a military hospital was visited by 13 persons seeking care for gastrointestinal illness with onset 2-3 hours after a work lunch party. The hospital responded by opening up temporary evaluation and treatment capacity in primary-care clinics and a progressive-care unit and by diverting one patient to a local civilian hospital. An immediate outbreak investigation was conducted by local military public health personnel with assistance from CDC. Initial epidemiologic...


Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections Associated with Sprout Consumption - Europe and North America, May-July 2011.

In May 2011, public health authorities in Europe began investigating an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infections that ultimately involved more than 4,000 persons in 16 countries. Early in the outbreak, it became evident that international surveillance would be necessary to determine the scope of the outbreak, characterize the disease, and identify the source. This report describes surveillance conducted in the United States, which involved active case-finding, use of labo...


Update: influenza activity - United States, september 29-december 7, 2013.

CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States ( The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States continued to increase from mid-November through the beginning of December. This report summarizes U.S. influenz...


Outbreaks of Human Metapneumovirus in Two Skilled Nursing Facilities - West Virginia and Idaho, 2011-2012.

During January and February 2012, state and local public health agencies in West Virginia and Idaho, with assistance from facility staff members and CDC, investigated outbreaks of unexplained respiratory illness characterized by high proportions of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) at two skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Investigations were conducted to determine the extent and etiology of each outbreak and make recommendations to prevent further spread. During both outbreaks, influenza was initi...


Fixed Drug Eruption Associated with Sulfonamides Sold in Latino Grocery Stores - Greater Washington, DC, Area, 2012-2013.

In March 2012, a Salvadoran-American boy aged 7 years living in Maryland developed three slightly painful, well-demarcated, flat, gray-brown patches on his torso. A dermatologist in Washington, DC, suspected a fixed drug eruption (an erythema multiforme-like adverse drug reaction that occurs in the same location each time the person uses a particular medication). The child had recently taken a cough and cold remedy, Baczol Antigripal, which was made in El Salvador and purchased in a Maryland suburb of Washi...


Childhood Lead Exposure Associated with the Use of Kajal, an Eye Cosmetic from Afghanistan - Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2013.

Lead is a toxic metal that damages blood cells, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the developing nervous system. The risk for lead exposure causing subsequent cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits is especially high among toddlers because of their hand-to-mouth activities and their higher absorption of ingested lead compared with adults. In January 2013, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) received a report from an Albuquerque clinic of a refugee child aged 20 months (patient 1) with an e...

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