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17:59 EDT 31st March 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 51–75 of 754 from MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

Saturday 10th July 1164

Outbreaks of Avian Influenza A (H5N2), (H5N8), and (H5N1) Among Birds - United States, December 2014-January 2015.

During December 15, 2014-January 16, 2015, the U.S. Department of Agriculture received 14 reports of birds infected with Asian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) (H5N2), (H5N8), and (H5N1) viruses. These reports represent the first reported infections with these viruses in U.S. wild or domestic birds. Although these viruses are not known to have caused disease in humans, their appearance in North America might increase the likelihood of human infection in the United States. Human infection w...

Thursday 29th October 1147

Updated Estimates of Neural Tube Defects Prevented by Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification - United States, 1995-2011.

In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are major birth defects of the brain and spine that occur early in pregnancy as a result of improper closure of the embryonic neural tube, which can lead to death or varying degrees of disability. The two most common NTDs are anencephaly and spina bifida. Beginning in 1998, the United States mandated fortification of enriched cereal g...

Wednesday 28th October 1147

Supplement Use and Other Characteristics Among Pregnant Women with a Previous Pregnancy Affected by a Neural Tube Defect - United States, 1997-2009.

Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy,...

Tuesday 27th October 1147

Early Estimates of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, January 2015.

In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months. Each season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI) associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza. This season, early estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness are possible because of widespread, early circulation of influenza viruses. By January 3, 2015, 46 states were experiencing w...

Monday 26th October 1147

Incidence of Notifiable Diseases Among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2007-2011.

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations experience substantial disparities in the incidence of multiple diseases compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A major goal of Healthy People 2020 is to eliminate health disparities, monitor disease trends, and identify population groups and diseases for targeted interventions. High rates of certain infectious diseases continue to be a major problem facing AI/AN populations. During 1990-2011, incidence rates for some infectious disea...

Sunday 25th October 1147

Improving Burial Practices and Cemetery Management During an Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic - Sierra Leone, 2014.

As of January 3, 2015, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) has killed more than 2,500 persons in Sierra Leone since the epidemic began there in May 2014. Ebola virus is transmitted principally by direct physical contact with an infected person or their body fluids during the later stages of illness or after death. Contact with the bodies and fluids of persons who have died of Ebola is especially common in West Africa, where family and community members often touch and wash the body of the deceased in preparation fo...

Saturday 24th October 1147

Use of a Nationwide Call Center for Ebola Response and Monitoring During a 3-Day House-to-House Campaign - Sierra Leone, September 2014.

During May 23, 2014-January 10, 2015, Sierra Leone reported 7,777 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). In response to the epidemic, on August 5, Sierra Leone's Emergency Operations Center established a toll-free, nationwide Ebola call center. The purpose of the call center is to encourage public reporting of possible Ebola cases and deaths to public health officials and to provide health education about Ebola to callers. This information also functions as an "alert" system for public health offic...

Friday 23rd October 1147

Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Diarrheal Illness Caused by Shigella flexneri - American Samoa, May-June 2014.

On May 9, 2014, a physician at hospital A in American Samoa noticed an abnormally high number of children presenting to the emergency department with bloody diarrhea. Based on preliminary testing of stool specimens, Entamoeba histolytica infection was suspected as a possible cause. Shigella was also suspected in a subset of samples. On May 22, the American Samoa Department of Health requested assistance from CDC with the outbreak investigation. The goals of the investigation were to establish the presence o...

Tuesday 14th June 1137

Tobacco Cessation Among Users of Telephone and Web-Based Interventions - Four States, 2011-2012.

Smoking caused an average of 480,000 deaths per year in the United States from 2005 to 2009, and three in 10 cancer deaths in the United States are tobacco related. Tobacco cessation is a high public health priority, and all states offer some form of tobacco cessation service. Quitlines provide telephone-based counseling services and are an effective intervention for tobacco cessation. In addition to telephone services, 96% of all U.S. quitlines offer Web-based cessation services. Evidence is limited on the...

Monday 13th June 1137

Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Outbreak from Imported Dried Puffer Fish - Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014.

On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City. The patients said two friends who consumed the same fish had similar, although less pronounced, symptoms and had not sought care. The Minnesota Department of Health conducted an in...

Sunday 12th June 1137

Perceptions of the Risk for Ebola and Health Facility Use Among Health Workers and Pregnant and Lactating Women - Kenema District, Sierra Leone, September 2014.

With an estimated maternal mortality ratio of 1,100 per 100,000 live births and a neonatal mortality rate of 49 per 1,000 live births, Sierra Leone has the highest maternal mortality ratio and the fourth highest neonatal mortality rate in the world, accounting for 2,400 maternal and 11,200 newborn deaths annually. By straining the fragile health care infrastructure, the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic might put pregnant women and their newborns at even greater risk for adverse outcomes.

Saturday 11th June 1137

Notes from the Field: Aseptic Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Echovirus 30 Among High School Football Players - Los Angeles County, California, 2014.

On August 4, 2014, the Acute Communicable Disease Control Program of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health received a report of three aseptic meningitis cases among football players at a county high school. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of the outbreak, identify potential exposures, and recommend control measures. An outbreak-associated aseptic meningitis case was defined as an illness of any team or family member with onset during July 28-August 11 with 1) cerebrospina...

Monday 27th October 1129

Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis Among Responders to a Rollover of a Truck Carrying Calves - Kansas, April 2013.

In April 2013, the Thomas County Health Department notified the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Response section (KDHE) of two cases of cryptosporidiosis among emergency responders to a tractor-trailer rollover. The truck was carrying approximately 350 preweaned Holstein calves. An outbreak investigation was led by KDHE with assistance from the county health department; six cases of cryptosporidiosis were identified among the 15 emergency responders. No addi...

Sunday 26th October 1129

Update: Influenza Activity - United States, September 28-December 6, 2014.

CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivitysurv.htm). The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States increased starting mid-October through December. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity during Septembe...

Saturday 25th October 1129

Illnesses and Deaths Among Persons Attending an Electronic Dance-Music Festival - New York City, 2013.

Outdoor electronic dance-music festivals (EDMFs) are typically summer events where attendees can dance for hours in hot temperatures. EDMFs have received increased media attention because of their growing popularity and reports of illness among attendees associated with recreational drug use. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is one of the drugs often used at EDMFs. MDMA causes euphoria and mental stimulation but also can cause serious adverse effects, including hyperthermia, seizures, hyponatremia, ...

Friday 24th October 1129

Update: Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic - West Africa, December 2014.

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to end the ongoing epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus, the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases, wh...

Thursday 23rd October 1129

Challenges in Responding to the Ebola Epidemic - Four Rural Counties, Liberia, August-November 2014.

The first cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa were identified in Guinea on March 22, 2014. On March 30, the first Liberian case was identified in Foya Town, Lofa County, near the Guinean border. Because the majority of early cases occurred in Lofa and Montserrado counties, resources were concentrated in these counties during the first several months of the response, and these counties have seen signs of successful disease control. By October 2014, the epidemic had reached all 15 counties of ...

Wednesday 22nd October 1129

Support Services for Survivors of Ebola Virus Disease - Sierra Leone, 2014.

As of December 6, 2014, Sierra Leone reported 6,317 laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola), the highest number of reported cases in the current West Africa epidemic. The Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation reported that as of December 6, 2014, there were 1,181 persons who had survived and were discharged. Survivors from previous Ebola outbreaks have reported major barriers to resuming normal lives after release from treatment, such as emotional distress, health issues, loss of ...

Tuesday 21st October 1129

Reintegration of Ebola Survivors into Their Communities - Firestone District, Liberia, 2014.

The current Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in size and duration. Since the outbreak was recognized in March 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported 17,145 cases with 6,070 deaths, primarily in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Combined data show a case-fatality rate of approximately 70% in patients with a recorded outcome; a 30% survival rate means that thousands of patients have survived Ebola. An important component of a comprehensive Ebola response is...

Monday 20th October 1129

Notes from the Field: Fatal Rat-Bite Fever in a Child - San Diego County, California, 2013.

In August 2013, the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency was notified of a fatal case of rat-bite fever (RBF) in a previously healthy male, aged 10 years, who owned pet rats. Two days before his death, the patient experienced rigors, fevers, vomiting, headaches, and leg pains. His physician noted a fever of 102.6°F (39.2ºC), documented a normal examination, diagnosed viral gastroenteritis, and prescribed anti-nausea medication. During the next 24 hours, the patient experienced vomiting and...

Sunday 19th October 1129

Notes from the Field: Measles Transmission at a Domestic Terminal Gate in an International Airport - United States, January 2014.

In March 2014, CDC identified a possible cluster of four laboratory-confirmed measles cases among passengers transiting a domestic terminal in a U.S. international airport. Through epidemiologic assessments conducted by multiple health departments and investigation of flight itineraries by CDC, all four patients were linked to the same terminal gate during a 4-hour period on January 17, 2014. Patient 1, an unvaccinated man aged 21 years with rash onset February 1, traveled on two domestic flights on January...

Saturday 25th September 1114

Premature Deaths Among Children with Epilepsy - South Carolina, 2000-2011.

Epilepsy is a common childhood neurologic disorder. In 2007, epilepsy affected an estimated 450,000 children aged 0-17 years in the United States. Approximately 53% of children with epilepsy and special health care needs have co-occurring conditions, and only about one third have access to comprehensive care. The few studies of mortality risk among children with epilepsy as compared with the general population generally find a higher risk for death among children with epilepsy with co-occurring conditions b...

Friday 24th September 1114

Declines in Pneumonia Hospitalizations of Children Aged <2 Years Associated with the Use of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines - Tennessee, 1998-2012.

The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the U.S. infant immunization schedule in the year 2000. By 2009, PCV7 introduction was associated with a 43% decline in all-cause pneumonia among U.S. children aged

Thursday 23rd September 1114

Arthritis Among Veterans - United States, 2011-2013.

Arthritis is among the most common chronic conditions among veterans and is more prevalent among veterans than nonveterans. Contemporary population-based estimates of arthritis prevalence among veterans are needed because previous population-based studies predate the Persian Gulf War, were small, or studied men only despite the fact that women comprise an increasing proportion of military personnel and typically have a higher prevalence of arthritis than men. To address this knowledge gap, CDC analyzed comb...

Wednesday 22nd September 1114

Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Screening - United States, 2007-2012.

Background: Cervical cancer screening is one of the greatest cancer prevention achievements, yet some women still develop or die from this disease. Objective: To assess recent trends in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, current screening percentages, and factors associated with higher incidence and death rates and inadequate screening. Methods: Percentages of women who had not been screened for cervical cancer in the past 5 years were estimated using data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveill...


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