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21:37 EST 29th January 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 51–75 of 703 from MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report


Notes from the Field: Measles in a Micronesian Community - King County, Washington, 2014.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can lead to complications and death. The United States achieved measles elimination (interruption of continuous transmission lasting ≥12 months) in 2000. Despite elimination, 592 measles cases were reported in the United States during January 1‒August 22, 2014, the highest number since 1994, primarily among unvaccinated travelers and their unvaccinated contacts. Measles remains endemic outside the Western Hemisphere, with outbreaks affecting communities ...

Saturday 20th June 1062

Prevalence of Smokefree Home Rules - United States, 1992-1993 and 2010-2011.

Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes causes an estimated 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking U.S. adults each year and an estimated $5.6 billion annually in lost productivity caused by premature death. In a 2006 report, the Surgeon General concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Although an increasing proportion of the population is covered by state or local comprehensive smokefree laws that prohibit tobacco smoking in all indoor public places and worksites, including restaur...

Friday 19th June 1062

Fatal Meningococcal Disease in a Laboratory Worker - California, 2012.

Occupationally acquired meningococcal disease is rare. Adherence to recommendations for safe handling of Neisseria meningitidis in the laboratory greatly reduces the risk for transmission to laboratory workers. A California microbiologist developed fatal serogroup B meningococcal disease after working with N. meningitidis patient isolates in a research laboratory (laboratory A). The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the local health department, the California Division of Occupational Safety and...

Thursday 18th June 1062

Notes from the Field: Reports of Expired Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Being Administered - United States, 2007-2014.

Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months. Two vaccine types are approved in the United States, injectable inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), which is administered intranasally. Influenza vaccine typicaly becomes widely available beginning in late summer or early fall. IIV has a standard expiration date of June 30 for any given influenza season (July 1 through June 30 of the following year). In contrast, after release for dist...

Tuesday 27th November 1054

Pedestrian Traffic Deaths Among Residents, Visitors, and Homeless Persons - Clark County, Nevada, 2008-2011.

Motor vehicle collisions and crashes are a leading cause of death among Nevada residents aged 5-34 years, representing 14% of all injury deaths in that age group in 2010. During 2008-2011, a total of 173 pedestrian deaths from motor vehicle collisions occurred in Nevada, accounting for 16% of motor vehicle deaths in the state (2). Approximately 75% (2 million persons) of Nevada residents live in Clark County, which includes the city of Las Vegas. To analyze pedestrian traffic deaths in Clark County among re...

Monday 26th November 1054

Prevalence of Nodding Syndrome - Uganda, 2012-2013.

Nodding syndrome (NS) is a seizure disorder of unknown etiology, predominately affecting children aged 3-18 years in three sub-Saharan countries (Uganda, South Sudan, and Tanzania), with the primary feature of episodic head nodding. These episodes are thought to be one manifestation of a syndrome that includes neurologic deterioration, cognitive impairment, and additional seizure types. NS investigations have focused on clinical features, progression, and etiology; however, none have provided a population-b...

Sunday 25th November 1054

Notes from the Field: Update: Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Bhutanese Refugees Resettling in the United States, 2012.

In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanes...

Sunday 10th February 1049

Restaurant menu labeling use among adults - 17 States, 2012.

Many persons underestimate the calories in restaurant foods. Increased attention has been given to menu labeling (ML) as a way to provide consumers with point-of-purchase information that can help them reduce calorie intake and make healthier dietary choices. In 2010, a federal law was passed requiring restaurants with 20 or more establishments to display calorie information on menus and menu boards.* The regulations to implement this federal law have not been finalized, but some states and local jurisdicti...

Saturday 9th February 1049

Prevalence and correlates of cryptococcal antigen positivity among AIDS patients - United States, 1986-2012.

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the leading opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The worldwide burden of CM among persons living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was estimated in 2009 to be 957,900 cases, with approximately 624,700 deaths annually. The high burden of CM globally comes despite the fact that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable weeks before the onset of symptoms, allowing screening for cryptococcal infection and e...

Friday 8th February 1049

Tobacco use among youths - Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments,...

Thursday 7th February 1049

Interim CDC Guidance for Polio Vaccination for Travel to and from Countries Affected by Wild Poliovirus.

In the prevaccine era, infection with wild poliovirus (WPV) was common worldwide, with seasonal peaks and epidemics in the summer and fall in temperate areas. The incidence of poliomyelitis in the United States declined rapidly after the licensure of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in 1955 and live oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s. The last cases of indigenously acquired WPV in the United States occurred in 1979, the last WPV case in a U.S. resident traveling abroad occurred in 1986, and the last WPV i...

Monday 4th November 1032

West Nile Virus and Other Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2013.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2013 for WNV and other nationally notifiable a...

Sunday 3rd November 1032

Use of MenACWY-CRM Vaccine in Children Aged 2 Through 23 Months at Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23...

Saturday 2nd November 1032

Notes from the Field: Increase in Fentanyl-Related Overdose Deaths - Rhode Island, November 2013-March 2014.

During November 2013-March 2014, twice as many all-intent drug overdose deaths were reported in Rhode Island as were reported during the same period in previous years. Most deaths were among injection-drug users, and a large percentage involved fentanyl, a synthetic opioid that is 50-100 times more potent than morphine. Clusters of fentanyl-related deaths have been reported recently in several states. From April 2005 to March 2007, time-limited active surveillance from CDC and the Drug Enforcement Administr...

Friday 16th February 1026

Medical Costs and Productivity Losses of Cancer Survivors - United States, 2008-2011.

The number of persons in the United States with a history of cancer has increased from 3 million in 1971 to approximately 13.4 million in 2012, representing 4.6% of the population. Given the advances in early detection and treatment of cancer and the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by >30% during the next decade, to approximately 18 million. Cancer survivors face many challenges with medical care follow-up, managing the long-term and late effects of trea...

Thursday 15th February 1026

Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2008-2012.

In 1997, the 22 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) adopted a goal of measles elimination by 2010. To achieve this goal, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) developed a four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage of children with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in every district of each country through routine immunization services, 2) achieve ≥95% vaccination coverage with the second dose...

Wednesday 14th February 1026

Notes from the Field: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers - Africa, 2013.

Long-term travelers to areas where malaria is endemic are at risk for this potentially fatal disease; however, malaria can be prevented through the use of insecticide-treated bednets, mosquito repellents, and chemoprophylaxis. Three options for chemoprophylaxis are available in the Africa region: mefloquine, doxycycline, and atovaquone-proguanil. These options differ by dosing regimen, cost, and side effect profile. Long-term adverse effects of these drugs have been reported rarely.


Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2012.

Despite significant declines during the past 30 years, cigarette smoking among adults in the United States remains widespread, and year-to-year decreases in prevalence have been observed only intermittently in recent years. To assess progress made toward the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1),* this report provides the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years, based on data from t...


Zinc Deficiency-Associated Dermatitis in Infants During a Nationwide Shortage of Injectable Zinc - Washington, DC, and Houston, Texas, 2012-2013.

Injectable zinc, a vital component of parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations, has been in short supply in the United States since late 2012. In December 2012, three premature infants with cholestasis hospitalized in Washington, DC, experienced erosive dermatitis in the diaper area and blisters on their extremities, a condition that can be associated with zinc deficiency. All three infants were receiving PN because they had extreme cholestasis and were unable to be fed by mouth or tube. The PN administered t...


CDC Grand Rounds: A Public Health Approach to Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, and preventable, public health problem in the United States. IPV can involve physical and sexual violence, threats of physical or sexual violence, and psychological abuse, including stalking. It can occur within opposite-sex or same-sex couples and can range from one incident to an ongoing pattern of violence. On average, 24 persons per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States. These numbers underesti...


Notes from the field: acute illness associated with use of pest strips - seven u.s. States and Canada, 2000-2013.

Dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips (DDVP pest strips) are among the few organophosphate products still available for indoor residential use. The residential uses for most other organophosphate products, including most DDVP products, were canceled because they posed unreasonable risks to children. DDVP pest strips act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and nerves of insect pests and are designed to gradually release DDVP vapor for up to 4 months. Acute illnesses in humans associated wi...


Lung cancer incidence trends among men and women - United States, 2005-2009.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and the second most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding skin cancer) among men and women in the United States. Although lung cancer can be caused by environmental exposures, most efforts to prevent lung cancer emphasize tobacco control because 80%-90% of lung cancers are attributed to cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke. One sentinel health consequence of tobacco use is lung cancer, and one way to measure the impact of tobacco control is by examining tren...


Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks - United States, 2009-2010.

Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks result from exposure to infectious pathogens or chemical agents in treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools and hot tubs or spas) or untreated recreational water venues (e.g., lakes and oceans). For 2009-2010, the most recent years for which finalized data are available, public health officials from 28 states and Puerto Rico electronically reported 81 recreational water-associated disease outbreaks to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance Sy...


Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes - United States, 2009-2010.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are excessive accumulations of microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms (phytoplankton) that produce biotoxins or otherwise adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. HABs occur sporadically and often produce a visible algal scum on the water. This report summarizes human health data and water sampling results voluntarily reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) and the Harmful A...


Vital signs: communication between health professionals and their patients about alcohol use - 44 States and the district of columbia, 2011.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol use accounted for an estimated 88,000 deaths in the United States each year during 2006-2010, and $224 billion in economic costs in 2006. Since 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended alcohol misuse screening and behavioral counseling (also known as alcohol screening and brief intervention [ASBI]) for adults to address excessive alcohol use; however, little is known about the prevalence of its implementation. ASBI will also be covered by many he...

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