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10:21 EDT 29th August 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 51–75 of 649 from MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report


Availability of an Assay for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Rifampin-Resistant Strains, and Considerations for Its Use - United States, 2013.

In August 2013, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permitted marketing of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California) to detect DNA of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and genetic mutations associated with resistance to rifampin (RMP) in unprocessed sputum and concentrated sputum sediments. Along with clinical, radiographic, and other laboratory findings, results of the assay aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The assay is a nucleic acid amplification-based (N...


Notice to readers: final 2012 reports of nationally notifiable infectious diseases.


Notes from the Field: Acute Hepatitis and Liver Failure Following the Use of a Dietary Supplement Intended for Weight Loss or Muscle Building - May-October 2013.

On September 9, 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of seven patients with severe acute hepatitis and fulminant liver failure of unknown etiology. Patients were previously healthy and sought medical care during May-September 2013. Clinicians reported that the seven patients had all used OxyELITE Pro, a dietary supplement marketed for weight loss and muscle gain, before illness onset.


Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a High School and School-Based Supervision of an Isoniazid-Rifapentine Regimen for Preventing Tuberculosis - Colorado, 2011-2012.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), is spread from person to person by the airborne route. It can be transmitted extensively in congregate settings, making investigating exposures and treating infected contacts challenging. In December 2011, a student at a Colorado high school with 1,381 students and school personnel received a diagnosis of pulmonary TB disease. One of five household contacts had TB disease, and the other four had latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI)....


Estimating Meningitis Hospitalization Rates for Sentinel Hospitals Conducting Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance.

The World Health Organization (WHO)-coordinated Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) sentinel hospital surveillance network provides data for decision making regarding use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, both recommended for inclusion in routine childhood immunization programs worldwide. WHO recommends that countries conduct sentinel hospital surveillance for meningitis among children aged


Deaths and severe adverse events associated with anesthesia-assisted rapid opioid detoxification - new york city, 2012.

During August-September 2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) was notified by the New York City Poison Control Center regarding three patients who experienced serious adverse events after anesthesia-assisted rapid opiate detoxification (AAROD) at a local outpatient clinic. All three patients required hospitalization, and one subsequently died. DOHMH issued an order requiring that the clinic cease performing AAROD pending an investigation and searched for additional cases of...


Influenza vaccination coverage among health-care personnel - United States, 2012-13 influenza season.

Routine influenza vaccination of health-care personnel (HCP) every influenza season can reduce influenza-related illness and its potentially serious consequences among HCP and their patients. To protect HCP and their patients, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all HCP be vaccinated against influenza during each influenza season. To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among HCP during the 2012-13 season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 1,944 self-sel...


Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women - United States, 2012-13 influenza season.

Pregnant women and infants aged


Updated Information on the Epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection and Guidance for the Public, Clinicians, and Public Health Authorities, 2012-2013.

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first reported to cause human infection in September 2012. In July 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations Emergency Committee determined that MERS-CoV did not meet criteria for a "public health emergency of international concern," but was nevertheless of "serious and great concern". This report summarizes epidemiologic information and provides updates to CDC guidance about patient evaluation, case definitions...


Progress in increasing electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies - United States, 2013.

Electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies can improve public health surveillance for reportable diseases and conditions by making reporting more timely and complete. Since 2010, CDC has provided funding to 57 state, local, and territorial health departments through the Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases cooperative agreement to assist with improving electronic laboratory reporting (ELR)* from clinical and public health laboratories to public health agenci...


Notes from the field: department of defense response to a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis - United States, october 2012.

On October 1, 2012, the Department of Defense (DoD) learned of a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis in persons who received injections of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) from a single compounding pharmacy. Ten patients with fungal meningitis after epidural steroid injection (ESI) were initially identified in Tennessee and North Carolina. No military treatment facilities had received MPA from this pharmacy. However, clinics receiving implicated MPA lots were located throughout the United States, and a...


Estimated percentages and characteristics of men who have sex with men and use injection drugs - United States, 1999-2011.

Male-to-male sex and illicit injection drug use are important transmission routes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Of all new HIV infections in 2010, 80% were among men, of which 78% were among men who have sex with men (MSM), 6% among male injection drug users (IDU), and 4% among men who have sex with men and inject drugs (MSM/IDU). MSM/IDU might have different prevention needs from men who are either MSM or IDU, but not both. A combination of effective, scalable, and evidence-based approa...


Impact of a national tobacco education campaign on weekly numbers of quitline calls and website visitors - United States, march 4-june 23, 2013.

During March 4-June 23, 2013, CDC conducted its second annual national paid-media tobacco education campaign encouraging adult smokers to quit. These campaigns, called Tips from Former Smokers (Tips), feature true stories of former smokers living with serious smoking-related diseases. To assess the immediate impact of the 2013 Tips campaign, CDC analyzed the weekly numbers of calls to the national telephone quitline portal (1-800-QUIT-NOW) and the weekly numbers of unique visitors to the Tips website (http:...


Assessing the risks for poliovirus outbreaks in polio-free countries - Africa, 2012-2013.

In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remains uninterrupted in Nigeria (in the WHO African Region [AFR]) and in Afghanistan and Pakistan (in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region [EMR]). In the WHO AFR, multiple WPV outbreaks have occurred since 2003 after importation of indigenous West African WPV into 21 previously polio-free countries in a "WPV importatio...


National, state, and local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2012.

The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey used to monitor vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. This report describes national, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born during January 2009-May 2011, based on results from the 2012 NIS. Healthy People 2020* objectives set childhood vaccination targets of 90% for ≥1 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB); ...


Measles - United States, january 1-august 24, 2013.

Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to complications and death. Although measles elimination (i.e., interruption of continuous transmission lasting ≥12 months) was declared in the United States in 2000, importation of measles cases continues to occur. During 2001-2012, the median annual number of measles cases reported in the United States was 60 (range: 37-220), including 26 imported cases (range: 18-80). The median annual number of outbreaks reported to CDC was four (range:...


Influenza vaccination practices of physicians and caregivers of children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions - United States, 2011-12 influenza season.

Cognitive dysfunction, seizure disorders (epilepsy), and other neurologic disorders are conditions associated with a high risk for complications of influenza virus infection. This risk was observed during the 2009 influenza pandemic; among 336 pediatric deaths, 146 occurred in children with underlying neurologic disorders, most commonly intellectual disability (76%) and epilepsy (51%). Because little is known about influenza-related knowledge and practices among the families and health-care providers of chi...


Comparison of provisional with final notifiable disease case counts - national notifiable diseases surveillance system, 2009.

States report notifiable disease cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). This allows CDC to assist with public health action and monitor infectious diseases across jurisdictional boundaries nationwide. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate these data on infectious disease incidence. The extent to which the weekly notifiable conditions are overreported or underreported can affect public health understanding of changes in the burden,...


Notes from the field: measles outbreak among members of a religious community - brooklyn, new york, march-june 2013.

On March 13, 2013, an intentionally unvaccinated adolescent aged 17 years returned to New York City from London, United Kingdom, while infectious with measles. This importation led to the largest outbreak of measles in the United States since 1996.


Notes from the field: measles outbreak associated with a traveler returning from India - north Carolina, april-may 2013.

On April 14, 2013, public health officials in North Carolina were notified of suspected measles infections in two unvaccinated members of a family. Measles was confirmed by laboratory testing at the State Laboratory of Public Health on April 16, 2013. Investigators learned that a third unvaccinated member of the household had developed fever and rash 11 days earlier, after returning to the United States from a 3-month visit to India, but measles had not been suspected until household contacts sought evaluat...


CDC's Emergency Management Program Activities - Worldwide, 2003-2012.

In 2003, recognizing the increasing frequency and complexity of disease outbreaks and disasters and a greater risk for terrorism, CDC established the Emergency Operations Center (EOC), bringing together CDC staff members who respond to public health emergencies to enhance communication and coordination. To complement the physical EOC environment, CDC implemented the Incident Management System (IMS), a staffing structure and set of standard operational protocols and services to support and monitor CDC progra...


Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water and other nonrecreational water - United States, 2009-2010.

Despite advances in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. CDC collects data on waterborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories* through the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System.† During 2009-2010, the most recent years for which finalized data are available, 33 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, comprising 1,040 cases of illness, 85 hospitalizations, and nine deaths. Legionella accounted f...


Vital signs: avoidable deaths from heart disease, stroke, and hypertensive disease - United States, 2001-2010.

Background: Deaths attributed to lack of preventive health care or timely and effective medical care can be considered avoidable. In this report, avoidable causes of death are either preventable, as in preventing cardiovascular events by addressing risk factors, or treatable, as in treating conditions once they have occurred. Although various definitions for avoidable deaths exist, studies have consistently demonstrated high rates in the United States. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of U.S. dea...


Notes from the field: investigation of a cluster of neural tube defects - central washington, 2010-2013.

During August 2012, a health-care provider in central Washington alerted the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) about an excessive number of anencephaly births at a local hospital. After examining referral patterns for high-risk pregnancies in central Washington, DOH identified pregnancies affected by a severe neural tube defect (NTD) in a three-county area. Case findings included a review of area hospital discharge records for International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 740, 741...


Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2012.

Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are battery-powered devices that provide doses of nicotine and other additives to the user in an aerosol. Depending on the brand, e-cigarette cartridges typically contain nicotine, a component to produce the aerosol (e.g., propylene glycol or glycerol), and flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, or chocolate). Potentially harmful constituents also have been documented in some e-cigarette cartridges, including irritants, genotoxins, and animal carcinogens. E-cigarettes that ar...

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