PubMed Journal Database | MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report - Page: 3 RSS

09:09 EDT 20th October 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 51–75 of 672 from MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report


Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections Associated with Sprout Consumption - Europe and North America, May-July 2011.

In May 2011, public health authorities in Europe began investigating an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infections that ultimately involved more than 4,000 persons in 16 countries. Early in the outbreak, it became evident that international surveillance would be necessary to determine the scope of the outbreak, characterize the disease, and identify the source. This report describes surveillance conducted in the United States, which involved active case-finding, use of labo...


Update: influenza activity - United States, september 29-december 7, 2013.

CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States ( The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States continued to increase from mid-November through the beginning of December. This report summarizes U.S. influenz...


Outbreaks of Human Metapneumovirus in Two Skilled Nursing Facilities - West Virginia and Idaho, 2011-2012.

During January and February 2012, state and local public health agencies in West Virginia and Idaho, with assistance from facility staff members and CDC, investigated outbreaks of unexplained respiratory illness characterized by high proportions of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) at two skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Investigations were conducted to determine the extent and etiology of each outbreak and make recommendations to prevent further spread. During both outbreaks, influenza was initi...


Fixed Drug Eruption Associated with Sulfonamides Sold in Latino Grocery Stores - Greater Washington, DC, Area, 2012-2013.

In March 2012, a Salvadoran-American boy aged 7 years living in Maryland developed three slightly painful, well-demarcated, flat, gray-brown patches on his torso. A dermatologist in Washington, DC, suspected a fixed drug eruption (an erythema multiforme-like adverse drug reaction that occurs in the same location each time the person uses a particular medication). The child had recently taken a cough and cold remedy, Baczol Antigripal, which was made in El Salvador and purchased in a Maryland suburb of Washi...


Childhood Lead Exposure Associated with the Use of Kajal, an Eye Cosmetic from Afghanistan - Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2013.

Lead is a toxic metal that damages blood cells, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the developing nervous system. The risk for lead exposure causing subsequent cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits is especially high among toddlers because of their hand-to-mouth activities and their higher absorption of ingested lead compared with adults. In January 2013, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) received a report from an Albuquerque clinic of a refugee child aged 20 months (patient 1) with an e...


Health-Care Provider Screening for Tobacco Smoking and Advice to Quit - 17 Countries, 2008-2011.

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the world. Article 14 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) states that countries should promote cessation of tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Health-care providers asking all patients about their tobacco use and advising tobacco users to quit are evidence-based strategies that increase tobacco abstinence. This report examines the proportion of tobacco smokers in 17 countrie...


Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Afghanistan, January 2012-September 2013.

Since 2012, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has been limited to three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 37 WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 80 cases in 2011; nine WPV1 cases were confirmed during January-September, 2013, compared with 26 WPV1 cases during the same period in 2012. Since No...


Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.

Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted (1). This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports (2,3). During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV ...


Notes from the Field: Severe Illness Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoid Use - Brunswick, Georgia, 2013.

On August 23, 2013, the Georgia Poison Center was notified of eight persons examined in an emergency department in Brunswick, Georgia, after smoking or inhaling fumes from synthetic cannabinoids. The Georgia Poison Center notified the Georgia Drug and Narcotics Agency, which informed the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH). The Brunswick emergency department was asked to report any additional patients who reported use of synthetic cannabinoid to the Coastal District Health Department. DPH investigator...


Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation - United States, 2010-2012.

Arthritis is the most common cause of disability among U.S. adults and is particularly common among persons with multiple chronic conditions. In 2003, arthritis in the United States resulted in an estimated $128 billion in medical-care costs and lost earnings. To update previous U.S. estimates of the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL), CDC analyzed 2010-2012 data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results o...


Multistate Outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Undercooked Chicken Livers - Northeastern United States, 2012.

In October 2012 the Vermont Department of Health (VDH) identified three cases of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in Vermont residents; the isolates had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. A query of PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, led to the identification of one additional case each from New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont that had been reported in the preceding 6 months. An investigation led by VDH ...


Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television - 25 markets, United States, 2010.

Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged 30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged 30% aged 2-20 years) or the propos


Vital signs: colorectal cancer screening test use - United States, 2012.

Background: Strong evidence exists that screening with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces the number of deaths from colorectal cancer (CRC). The percentage of the population up-to-date with recommended CRC screening increased from 54% in 2002 to 65% in 2010, primarily through increased use of colonoscopy. Methods: Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to estimate percentages of adults aged 50-75 years who reported CRC screeni...


Comorbidity in adults with epilepsy - United States, 2010.

Epilepsy, a spectrum disorder characterized by recurring seizures, affects approximately 2.3 million U.S. adults. Epilepsy poses challenges because of uncontrolled seizures, treatment complexity, social disadvantages (e.g., unemployment), and stigma. Persons with epilepsy are at increased risk for early mortality and for comorbidities that can complicate epilepsy management, increase health-care costs, and shorten the lifespan. Numerous studies have described higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity (e.g., d...


Influenza vaccination among pregnant women - massachusetts, 2009-2010.

The emergence of the novel influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (pH1N1) strain in 2009 required a coordinated public health response, especially among high-risk populations. Because pregnant women were at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization compared with the general population, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended pregnant women receive both the pH1N1 vaccine and the annual seasonal vaccine during the ...


Global routine vaccination coverage - 2012.

In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Programme on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Despite improvement in global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine (DTP3), from 5% in 1974 to 83% in 2011, almost one fifth of the world's children still had not received their third dose of the DTP series during their first year of life. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vacci...


Notes from the field: outbreaks of cyclosporiasis - United States, june-august 2013.

During June-August 2013, CDC, state and local public health officials, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated an unusually large number of reports of cyclosporiasis (compared with annual reports to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System [e.g., 123 cases in 2012]), an intestinal infection caused by the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. By September 20, CDC had been notified of 643 cases from 25 states, primarily Texas (278 cases), Iowa (153), and Nebraska (86). Investigations in...


Notes from the field: salmonella typhimurium infections associated with a community college microbiology laboratory - maine, 2013.

On May 2, 2013, a case of salmonellosis was reported to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The patient reported symptoms of diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and nausea, after attending a community college microbiology laboratory class. A second case was reported on May 8. Epidemiologic interviews conducted with both patients indicated common exposure at a community college, including one patient specifically naming the other patient.


Progress toward global eradication of dracunculiasis - january 2012-june 2013.

Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after infection from contaminated drinking water, the worm emerges through the skin of the infected person, usually on the lower limb. Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. In 1986, the World Health Assembly (WHA) called for dracunculiasis elimination, and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, supported by The Ca...


Histoplasmosis in a state where it is not known to be endemic - montana, 2012-2013.

Histoplasmosis is caused by infection with the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, following inhalation of contaminated soil. Among symptomatic patients, the most common clinical presentation is acute pneumonia. Persons with compromised immune systems are at risk for disseminated histoplasmosis, a severe illness requiring antifungal therapy that is often characterized by fever, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss. H. capsulatum is endemic in the Ohio River and Mississippi River valleys, where it is fou...


Update: influenza activity - United States and worldwide, may 19-september 28, 2013.

During May 19-September 28, 2013,* the United States experienced low levels of seasonal influenza activity overall. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (pH1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B viruses were detected worldwide and were identified sporadically in the United States. In June, influenza A (H3N2) variant† viruses (H3N2)v were first detected in Indiana, and between June 18 and September 28, a total of 20 cases of influenza A variant viruses ([H3N2]v and influenza A (H1N1) variant [H1N1]v) were reported ...


Notes from the field: strongyloidiasis in a rural setting - southeastern kentucky, 2013.

Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, a parasitic nematode (worm). Initial symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, or rash. Infection is often asymptomatic in the chronic phase but can be life-threatening in immunosuppressed persons. Transmission typically occurs when larvae from stool-contaminated soil penetrate skin; intraintestinal autoinfection is also possible, sometimes allowing infection to persist for decades. Serologic studies are often used in prevalence estimates because...


Notes from the field: strongyloides infection among patients at a long-term care facility - Florida, 2010-2012.

During a 2-week period in August 2011, two patients in a long-term care facility in Miami-Dade County, Florida, had gastrointestinal symptoms; microscopic examination of stool specimens showed that both harbored Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal nematode. A subsequent chart review revealed an additional case within the facility 1 year earlier. Concerned about the possibility of an outbreak, the associate director of patient care services at the facility contacted the Florida Department of Health in M...


Availability of an Assay for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Rifampin-Resistant Strains, and Considerations for Its Use - United States, 2013.

In August 2013, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permitted marketing of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California) to detect DNA of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and genetic mutations associated with resistance to rifampin (RMP) in unprocessed sputum and concentrated sputum sediments. Along with clinical, radiographic, and other laboratory findings, results of the assay aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The assay is a nucleic acid amplification-based (N...


Notice to readers: final 2012 reports of nationally notifiable infectious diseases.

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