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Using pulsed laser deposition, TiO2 (-) B and its recently discovered variant Ca:TiO2 (-) B (CaTi5O11) are synthesized as highly crystalline thin films for the first time by a completely water-free process. Significant enhancement in the Li-ion battery performance is achieved by manipulating the crystal orientation of the films, used as anodes, with a demonstration of extraordinary structural stability under extreme conditions.
A relationship between solvent additive concentration and active layer thickness in small molecule solar cells is investigated. Specifically, the additive concentration must scale with the amount of semiconductor material and not as absolute concentration in solution. Devices with a wide range of active layers of up to 200 nm thickness can readily achieve efficiencies close to 6% when the right concentration of additive is used.
A new class of acceptor-substituted S,N-heteropentacenes is developed for vacuum-processed organic solar cells, providing encouraging power conversion efficiencies of up to 6.5%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations give a direct correlation between the blend film morphology and the photovoltaic parameters, such as short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF).
The evolution of crystallite size and microstrain in DNA-mediated nanoparticle superlattices is dictated by annealing temperature and the flexibility of interparticle bonds. This work addresses a major challenge in synthesizing optical metamaterials based upon noble metal nanoparticles by enabling the crystallization of large nanoparticles (100 nm diameter) at high volume fractions (34% metal).
Biodegradable printed circuit boards based on water-soluble materials are demonstrated. These systems can dissolve in water within 10 mins to yield end-products that are environmentally safe. These and related approaches have the potential to reduce hazardous waste streams associated with electronics disposal.
The design and characterization of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for optoelectronic applications represents an active area of recent research in organoelectronics. Noble metal-free TADF molecules offer unique optical and electronic properties arising from the efficient transition and interconversion between the lowest singlet (S1 ) and triplet (T1 ) excited states. Their ability to harvest triplet excitons for fluorescence through facilitated reverse intersystem crossing (T1 →S...
Efficient deep-blue-emitting tetradentate platinum complexes with a narrow spectral bandwidth are presented, which demonstrate CIEx ≈ 0.15 and CIEy < 0.1. Ultimately, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 24.8% peak external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of (0.147, 0.079) is fabricated using PtON7-dtb.
A coupled oscillator model is developed to explain the observation of gyrotropy in achiral metamaterials. By the action of distinct excitation modes, which only combine under oblique incidence, the measurement of circular birefringence in a split-ring resonator (SRR) array is explained. The symmetry of the SRR resembles the water molecule, and parallels between the systems are drawn.
Artificial photosynthesis of clean fuels has aroused great interest to meet the great demand for clean and renewable energy. Great advances have recently been made in various photoelectrodes with their efficiencies and stabilities significantly improved by the design and implementation of novel structures, which are determinative for the optical absorption, charge-transport path, surface area, and electronic conductivity. This Research News article discusses perspectives of the synthetic methods and micro- ...
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged in the last decade as a promising high resolution lens-less imaging approach for the characterization of various samples. It has made significant technical progress through developments in source, algorithm and imaging methodologies thus enabling important scientific breakthroughs in a broad range of disciplines. In this report, we will introduce the principles of forward scattering CDI and Bragg geometry CDI (BCDI), with an emphasis on the latter. BCDI e...
Smart Morphable Surfaces enable switchable and tunable aerodynamic drag reduction of bluff bodies. Their topography, resembling the morphology of golf balls, can be custom-generated through a wrinkling instability on a curved surface. Pneumatic actuation of these patterns results in the control of the drag coefficient of spherical samples by up to a factor of two, over a range of flow conditions.
A closely interconnected network of MoP nanoparticles (MoP-CA2) with rich nano-pores, large specific surface area, and high conductivity can function as a highly active non-noble metal catalyst for electrochemically generating hydrogen from acidic water. The network exhibits nearly 100% Faradaic efficiency and needs overpotentials of 125 and 200 mV to attain current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm(-2) , respectively. The catalytic activity is maintained for at least 24 h.
Homogeneous dispersion of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles on 3D architectures constructed of graphene and exfoliated graphitic carbon nitride results in hybrids with 3D porous structures, large surface area, high nitrogen content, and good electrical conductivity. This leads to excellent electrocatalytic activity, unusually high poison tolerance, and reliable stability for methanol oxidation, making them of interest as catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.
A liquid surface established by standing waves is used as a dynamically reconfigurable template to assemble microscale materials into ordered, symmetric structures in a scalable and parallel manner. We illustrate broad applicability of this technology by assembling diverse materials from soft matter, rigid bodies, individual cells, cell spheroids and cell-seeded microcarrier beads.
A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pair, generate electricity.
A non-fractured, high aspect ratio wrinkled surface is successfully fabricated. Building upon recently developed models of the localization transition and the current knowledge of surface failures, the wrinkling mode is stabilized at high strain, doubling the accessible wrinkling aspect ratio to the currently reported value. This high aspect ratio surface provides significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.
By combining the freedom of both the structural design and the orientation of split ring resonator antennas, we demonstrate terahertz metasurfaces that are capable of controlling both the phase and amplitude profiles over a very broad bandwidth. As an example, we show that the phase-amplitude metasurfaces can be engineered to control the diffraction orders arbitrarily.
A kind of MWCNT/PDMS film with excellent conductivity and mechanical properties is developed using a facile and large-scale water surface assisted synthesis method. The film can act as conductive support for electrochemically active PANI nanofibers. The device based on these PANI/MWCNT/PDMS electrodes showed good and stable capacitive behavior even under static and dynamic stretching conditions.
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and polyaniline (PANI) assemble onto the surface of cellulose fibers (CFs) and into the pores of CF paper, to form hierarchical nanostructured PANI-rGO/CF composite paper. Based on these composite papers, flexible and foldable all-solid-state supercapacitors are achieved.
Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDFTPD) polymers prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >7% in BHJ solar cells with phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In "as-cast" PBDFTPD-based devices solution-processed without a small-molecule additive, high PCEs can be obtained in spite of the weak propensity of the polymers to self-assemble and form π-aggregates in thin films.
Hydrogenated uniform Pt clusters supported on porous CaMnO3 nanocomposites are synthesized and investigated as a new electrocatalytic material for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Due to the synergistic effect of Pt and CaMnO3, the nanocomposites exhibit superior activity and durability to the benchmark Pt/C catalyst.
A novel hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene/oligothiophene hybrid is shown to self-assemble into a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline phase, and respond to applied electric fields resulting in uniform homeotropic or parallel alignment depending upon the electrode structure. Furthermore, the columnar orientation can be maintained even after removal of the electric field unless the material is heated above the clearing temperature.
A promising, safe, and economic fluorescent probe, g-C3 N4 single-layered QD is introduced for two-photon fluorescence imaging of cellular nucleus for the first time. The large two-photon absorption cross section, high photostability, good biocompatibility and nontoxicity, negligible photothermal effect, specific interaction with DNA render the single-layered g-C3 N4 quantum dot a promising candidate for in vivo and in vitro two-photon fluorescence imaging and further biomedical applications.
N-shaped organic semiconductors are synthesized via four steps from a readily available starting material. Such semiconductors exhibit preferable ionization potential for p-type operation, thermally stable crystalline phase over 200 °C, and high carrier mobility up to 16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (12.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on average) with small threshold voltages in solution-crystallized FET.