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Only ten micrometer thick crystalline silicon solar cells deliver a short-circuit current of 34.5 mA cm(-2) and power conversion efficiency of 15.7%. The record performance for a crystalline silicon solar cell of such thinness is enabled by an advanced light-trapping design incorporating a 2D inverted pyramid photonic crystal and a rear dielectric/reflector stack.
Photon upconversion lithography is demonstrated for the patterning of proteins using near-infrared light. Proteins and an upconverting-nanoparticle-decorated substrate are linked via blue-light-cleavable Ru complexes. The substrate is irradiated using near-infrared light with a photomask. In the exposed areas, upconverting nanoparticles convert the near-infrared light into blue light, which induces cleavage of the Ru complexes and release of the proteins.
A flexible and sensitive textile-based pressure sensor is developed using highly conductive fibers coated with dielectric rubber materials. The pressure sensor exhibits superior sensitivity, very fast response time, and high stability compared with previous textile-based pressure sensors. By using a weaving method, the pressure sensor can be applied to make smart gloves and clothes which can control machines wirelessly as human-machine interfaces.
We present the first example of covalent chemistry on fluorographene, enabling the attachment of -SH groups through nucleophilic substitution of fluorine in a polar solvent. The resulting thiographene-like, 2D derivative is hydrophilic with semiconducting properties and bandgap between 1 and 2 eV depending on F/SH ratio. Thiofluorographene is applied in DNA biosensing by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
Development of advanced energy-storage systems for portable devices, electric vehicles, and grid storage must fulfill several requirements: low-cost, long life, acceptable safety, high energy, high power, and environmental benignity. With these requirements, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries promise great potential to be the next-generation high-energy system. However, the practicality of Li-S technology is hindered by technical obstacles, such as short shelf and cycle life and low sulfur content/loading, ari...
A 3D N-doped graphene foam with a 6.8 at% nitrogen content is prepared by annealing a freeze-dried graphene oxide foam in ammonia. It is used as an anode in sodium ion batteries to deliver a high initial reversible capacity of 852.6 mA h g(-1) at 1 C between 0.02 and 3 V with a long-term retention of 69.7% after 150 cycles.
A novel class of hybrid organic thermoelectric materials is demonstrated for the first time for constructing flexible thermoelectric devices on polyimide substrates with high output power by using nanotechnology instead of conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The hybrid organic thermoelectric materials are composed of nanoparticles of a polymer complex, carbon nanotubes, and poly(vinyl chloride), and show high performance (dimensionless thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT ≈...
The broadband and tunable high-performance microwave absorption properties of an ultralight and highly compressible graphene foam (GF) are investigated. Simply via physical compression, the microwave absorption performance can be tuned. The qualified bandwidth coverage of 93.8% (60.5 GHz/64.5 GHz) is achieved for the GF under 90% compressive strain (1.0 mm thickness). This mainly because of the 3D conductive network.
Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires.
Using a self-assembly of recombinant spidroins, biomimetic spinning dopes are produced and wet-spun into fibers. Upon varying the molecular design of the underlying recombinant spidroins, the influence of the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, as well as the size of the repetitive core domain on fiber mechanics, is determined. Fiber toughness upon biomimetic processing equals and even slightly exceeds that of natural ones.
Lead sulfide quantum dots represent an emerging photovoltaic absorber material. While their associated optical qualities are true for the colloidal solution phase, they change upon processing into thin-films. A detailed view to the optical key-parameters during solid film development is presented and the limits and outlooks for this versatile and promising absorber are discussed.
On page 634, Z. Bao and co-workers develop a bio-inspired microhairy sensor which enables ultra-conformability on non-flat surfaces and significant enhancement of various human pulsations. The ultra-conformal microhair pressure sensors are capable of measuring weak pulsations of internal jugular venous pulses stemming from a human neck, which are known to contain critical clinical information that may be used for preliminary diagnosis of heart failure.
F. Li, H.-M. Cheng, and co-workers develop a flexible Li-S battery based on an integrated structure of sulfur and graphene on a separator with excellent flexibility, mechanical properties, and high energy density. The internal graphene current collector offers a continuous conductive pathway, a modified interface with sulfur, and a good barrier to, and an effective reservoir for, the dissolved polysulfides, consequently improving the capacity and cyclic life of the Li-S battery, as shown on page 641.
A unique cage growth of graphene is developed by using carbon nanotube (CNT) spider webs as porous templates, resulting in CNT/graphene hybrids with high conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, monolithic all-carbon transistors with graphene as active elements and CNT/graphene hybrids as contacts and interconnects are directly formed by chemical synthesis, and flexible all-carbon bioelectronics are subsequently demonstrated for in vivo mapping of cardiac signals.
Carbon charge-transfer complexes offer great potential for next generation organic multiferroics. On page 734, S. Ren and co-workers demonstrate room temperature magnetoelectric coupling of nanocarbon charge-transfer magnets. In the image magnetic field effects on optoelectronic and dipole properties of nanocarbon complexes are shown, which would be critical for the development of all-organic multifunctional smart devices.
A highly sensitive single-walled carbon nanotube/C60 -based infrared photo-transistor is fabricated with a responsivity of 97.5 A W(-1) and detectivity of 1.17 × 10(9) Jones at 1 kHz under a source/drain bias of -0.5 V. The much improved performance is enabled by this unique device architecture that enables a high photoconductive gain of ≈10(4) with a response time of several milliseconds.
Thermochromic photonic capsules are microfluidically created by encapsulating cholesteric liquid crystals with a hydrogel membrane. On page 627, Y. H. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and co-workers demonstrate that these photonic ink capsules can be used as injectable colorimetric micro-thermometers which potentially provide a temperature profile along the entire medium where the microcapsules are suspended.
S.-Z. Qiao, X.-W. Du, and co-workers report on page 740 the preparation of nanoflake arrays (NFAs) with appropriate size and their unprecedented light absorption properties. Intriguingly, after a thin-layer of an organic absorber is loaded on NFAs, extraordinarily high absorption efficiency (95%) is realized. As a result, the hybrid solar cell consisting of NFAs and the organic absorber yields a photo-current that is ten times higher than that of the counterpart device with common planar structure.
This special issue, guest-edited by Jiesheng Chen and Xinliang Feng, provides an overview on the representative materials research conducted at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The issue consists of six reviews and five research news articles, with the focus on functional inorganic, organic, and polymeric materials for applications in the energy, optoelectronic, and biomedical fields. The front cover shows the classical main gate at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Biological species have developed multiple effective structures to survive the process of natural selection. On page 464, D. Zhang and co-workers review recent studies on how these bio-structures can be replicated in advanced materials. This strategy not only can create various structures that are otherwise unavailable, but also provides proofs of principles for a broad range of research fields including energy and environmental science.
The back cover of this special issue displays the modern entrance at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.