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Electric-field-controlled tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of magnetic tunnel junctions is considered as the milestone of ultralow power spintronic devices. Here, reversible, continuous magnetization rotation and manipulation is reported for TMR at room temperature in CoFeB/AlOx /CoFeB/piezoelectric structure by electric fields without the assistance of a magnetic field through strain-mediated interaction. These results provide a new way of exploring electric-field-controlled spintronics.
Benzimidazoline radical dimers that can be handled in air but that function as powerful reductants are reported and evaluated as n-dopants by solution- and vacuum-processing. In several host materials, one of these dimers is found to have a more consistent doping effect than a hydride-donor dopant analog. Notably, a record high room-temperature conductivity of 12.0 S cm(-1) is obtained for doped C60 .
High-performance optoelectronic devices based on cup-stacked carbon nanotubes are realized. Based on a Schottky barrier model, rectifying behaviors and high photo-response are observed by using growth catalysts as nanoscale electronic contacts. Similar performances are also obtained and furthermore tuned by using the nanotube's defective surface as effective decoration sites transforming nanotube resistors into Schottky diodes.
Rational bottom-up assembly of nanowire networks may be a way to successfully continue the miniaturization in the semiconductor industry. A generic method has been developed that ensures the InSb nanowires meet under the optimal angle for formation of single-crystalline structures, which are a promising platform for the future random access memories based on Majorana fermions.
Artificial superlattice nanocomposites are successfully prepared by electrostatic heteroassembly of redoxable Co-Al or Co-Ni layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets with graphene. The superlattice electrodes exhibit a high capacity up to ca. 650 F/g, which is approximately 6 times that of pure graphene. The composites are found to be capable of superfast charging and discharging, up to ca. 100 Hz, comparable with the high-power performance of graphene electrodes.
Hybrid nanostructures composed of semiconductor and plasmonic metal components are receiving extensive attention. They display extraordinary optical characteristics that are derived from the simultaneous existence and close conjunction of localized surface plasmon resonance and semiconduction, as well as the synergistic interactions between the two components. They have been widely studied for photocatalysis, plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, biotechnology, and solar cells. In this review, the developments in...
Biomimetic and flexible bamboo-like hybrid fibers are fabricated by J. Qin and co-workers as described on page 2494 using a novel one-step strategy combining a droplet microfluidic technique with a wet-spinning process. The polymer spheres and multicellular spheroids can be incorporated into the biocompatible microfibers in a controllable way, which has extensive applications in materials science and tissue engineering.
A highly-efficient, lightweight, flexible, piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film nanogenerator is demonstrated by employing the laser lift-off transfer technique and a lateral electrode structure. As reported by K. J. Lee and co-workers on page 2514, this large-area PZT thin-film nanogenerator can convert to the highest output performance from a slight mechanical deformation and provides the feasibility of fully flexible self-powered electronics.
By using a sandwich-shaped assembly system, a wide variety of nanoparticles (e.g., metal, metal oxide, semiconductor, and organic materials) can be aligned towards one direction upon diverse substrates (including industrial silicon wafers or transparent glass plates) at a large scale (up to 10 cm × 10 cm). Taking silver nanoparticles as an example, on page 2501, Y. L. Song and co-workers demonstrate that well-defined nanoparticle circuits with controllable orientation and position can be generated by a des...
A so called "energy river" originates in the active layer of a bulk-heterojunction solar cell as described in work by D. Neher, K. Vandewal, and co-workers on page 2533. This river contains polymer chains and cools down from its hot origin to a cold front. The riverbank is created by "fullerene walls" with different heights. Flashes create hot electrons in the energy river. These electrons need to decrease in temperature during their refrigerating evolution in the river. The cold electrons on the right side...
C. B. Park, K. Kang and co-workers on page 2558 present a simple but powerful strategy for the design of high-performance organic electrodes for rechargeable batteries, through the reassembly of electroactive aromatic molecules into nanolayers on carbon nanotubes. The resulting flexible nanohybrid electrodes can store a large amount of electrical energy in an ultrafast and sustainable way. This strategy is expected to be easily extended to various aromatic molecules, which can broaden candidate pools for gr...
Organic transistors with elastic conductors and dielectrics can be stretched up to 250% strain while maintaining the transistor characteristics. Strain-independent properties can be achieved after an initial "programming" cycle that causes the formation of microcracks in the semiconductor. The change in mobility with strain follows the same trend in different stretching directions.
Fabricated adhesives are demonstrated to support high loads while maintaining easy release on a variety of "real world" surfaces. These adhesives consist of simple elastomers and fabrics without nano or micron scale features, yet they surpass the adhesive force capacity of live Tokay geckos and can be scaled to large sizes.
Tungsten oxide quantum dots (QDs) with an average size down to 1.6 nm have been developed, serving as a new class of promising electrode materials, which yield efficient and fast electron/ion transport in charging/discharging process. With a visually impressive display, the QDs present coloration/bleaching times within 1 s, which is much superior to inorganic analogues and even competitive to organic related materials.
A solar park based on polymer solar cells is described and analyzed with respect to performance, practicality, installation speed, and energy payback time. It is found that a high voltage installation where solar cells are all printed in series enables an installation rate in Watts installed per minute that far exceed any other PV technology in existence. The energy payback time for the practical installation of polymer solar cell foil on a wooden 250 square meter platform in its present form is 277 days wh...
Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer-based materials with high water content and physical characteristics that resemble the native extracellular matrix. Because of their remarkable properties, hydrogel systems are used for a wide range of biomedical applications, such as three-dimensional (3D) matrices for tissue engineering, drug-delivery vehicles, composite biomaterials, and as injectable fillers in minimally invasive surgeries. In addition, the rational design of hydrogels with controlled physical and biolo...
A self-recovering gel with integrated functions synthesized via self-initiated UV poly-merization is described, which offers an effective platform for a gel electrolyte to attain adjustable supercapacitor performances for energy storage devices.
A new cationic poly(phenylene vinylene) derivative (PPV-NMe3 (+) ) is synthesized, and it exhibits differential binding ability to microbial cell walls with different components. By varying the ion strengths of the buffer solution, single PPV-NMe3 (+) molecules can discriminate fungi, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria in a rapid and simple manner. Thus cationic conjugated polymers exhibit a high potential as a diagnostic material for the detection and discrimination of pathogens.
Photolithographic fabrication via a "silk sericin photoresist" is used to form precise protein microstructures directly and rapidly on a variety of substrates. High resolution and fidelity architectures in two and three dimensions with line widths down to 1 micron are formed. Photo-crosslinked protein structures provide structural iridescence and guide cell adhesion with precise spatial control.
A multifunctional nano-in-micro drug delivery platform is developed by conjugating the porous silicon nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polymers and subsequent encapsulation into a pH-responsive polymer using microfluidics. The multistage platform shows monodisperse size distribution, pH-responsive payload release, and the released nanoparticles are mucoadhesive. Moreover, this platform is capable of simultaneously loading and releasing multidrugs with distinct properties.
A unique form of adaptive electronics is demonstrated, which change their mechanical properties from rigid and planar to soft and compliant, in order to enable soft and conformal wrapping around 3D objects, including biological tissue. These devices feature excellent mechanical robustness and maintain initial electrical properties even after changing shape and stiffness.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid films with complementary properties are combined for use in high-performance transparent electrodes and field effect transistors (FETs). Based on the transfer characteristics for the hybrid film-based FETs, an improved Ion /Ioff and on-state current are achieved compared with pristine graphene. Notably, the hybrid film has a sheet resistance of 300 Ω/sq with 96.4% transparency.
The band structure of a phononic crystal can be controlled by tuning the mechanical stiffness of the links connecting its constituting elements. The first implementation of a phononic crystal with adaptive connectivity is obtained by using piezoelectric resonators as variable stiffness elements, and its wave-propagation properties are experimentally characterized.