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Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. These new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is included about whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewe...
A new methodology for manipulating transient-amorphous states of phase-change memory (PCM) materials is reported as a viable means to boost the speed, yet reducing the power consumption, of PC memories, and is applicable to new forms of PCM-based neuromorphic devices. Controlling multiple-pulse interactions with PC materials may provide an opportunity towards developing a new paradigm for ultra-fast neuromorphic computing.
High energy density and long term stability of Li-S batteries are achieved by employing a 3D sponge-like carbon nanotube cathode and a liquid-type polysulfide catholyte. Carbon nanotubes provide not only excellent electron pathways and polysulfide reservoirs but can also be used as a standalone cathode without current collectors, which greatly alleviates problems arising from insulating sulfur and polysulfide shuttles as well as remarkably increases the energy density.
A flexible uniform responsive microstructure (μFUR) array is reported by E. N. Wang and co-workers, on page 6442. The μFUR has continuous and extreme tilt angles via the application of a magnetic field and is used to dynamically manipulate liquid spreading directionality, control fluid drag, and tune optical transmittance over a large range. Cover art by Carly L. Sanker.
The atomic layer deposition technique is successfully applied to synthesize lithium iron phosphate using rationally designed surface reactions, as demonstrated for the first time by X. Sun and co-workers on page 6472. The lithium iron phosphate exhibits high power density, excellent rate capability, and ultra-long lifetime, showing great potential in vehicular lithium batteries and 3D all-solid-state microbatteries.
M. Ullah, E. B. Namdas, and co-workers present on page 6410 the first all-solution-processed hybrid light-emitting transistors, and demonstrate the effectiveness of their operation with three organic emissive materials. This approach involves the fabrication of a bilayer device structure using a solution of organic emissive material, and a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide. The use of nonplanar contacts is also demonstrated in this study as playing a crucial role in the enhanced optoelectronics characteristics.
Twelve-pointed graphene grains are controllably fabricated on a liquid Cu surface by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition, as described by G. Yu and co-workers on page 6423. These novel-shaped grains are characterized as single-layer and single-crystalline. The distinct nature of the alternating edge types (zigzag and armchair edges in sequence) in such a grain may result in their promising application in spintronics and other areas.
C. S. Han and co-workers report on page 6394 the clean, fast, and inexpensive direct transfer of large-area monolayer CVD graphene from Cu foil to various substrates such as PET, PDMS, and glass using a mechano-electro-thermal (MET) process. This process leads to ultraconformal contact between the graphene and the target substrate, which increases the higher adhesion energy of the graphene to the substrate over Cu foil. This transferred graphene presents both excellent quality (with no residues or defects) ...
Anisotropic magnetoresistance at the BiFeO3 domain walls has been observed thanks to the realization of micro-devices that allow the direct magneto-transport characterization of the domain-walls. Anisotropic magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic metals has been a pillar in spintronic technology, and now it is evidenced at the conductive domain walls of an insulating ferroelectric material, which implies that domain walls become an electrically tunable nanospintronic object.
There is an ongoing drive to replace the most common transparent conductor, indium tin oxide (ITO), with a material that gives comparable performance, but can be coated from solution at speeds orders of magnitude faster than the sputtering processes used to deposit ITO. Metal nanowires are currently the only alternative to ITO that meets these requirements. This Progress Report summarizes recent advances toward understanding the relationship between the structure of metal nanowires, the electrical and optic...
Using pulsed laser deposition, TiO2 (-) B and its recently discovered variant Ca:TiO2 (-) B (CaTi5O11) are synthesized as highly crystalline thin films for the first time by a completely water-free process. Significant enhancement in the Li-ion battery performance is achieved by manipulating the crystal orientation of the films, used as anodes, with a demonstration of extraordinary structural stability under extreme conditions.
A relationship between solvent additive concentration and active layer thickness in small molecule solar cells is investigated. Specifically, the additive concentration must scale with the amount of semiconductor material and not as absolute concentration in solution. Devices with a wide range of active layers of up to 200 nm thickness can readily achieve efficiencies close to 6% when the right concentration of additive is used.
A new class of acceptor-substituted S,N-heteropentacenes is developed for vacuum-processed organic solar cells, providing encouraging power conversion efficiencies of up to 6.5%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations give a direct correlation between the blend film morphology and the photovoltaic parameters, such as short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF).
The evolution of crystallite size and microstrain in DNA-mediated nanoparticle superlattices is dictated by annealing temperature and the flexibility of interparticle bonds. This work addresses a major challenge in synthesizing optical metamaterials based upon noble metal nanoparticles by enabling the crystallization of large nanoparticles (100 nm diameter) at high volume fractions (34% metal).
Biodegradable printed circuit boards based on water-soluble materials are demonstrated. These systems can dissolve in water within 10 mins to yield end-products that are environmentally safe. These and related approaches have the potential to reduce hazardous waste streams associated with electronics disposal.
The design and characterization of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for optoelectronic applications represents an active area of recent research in organoelectronics. Noble metal-free TADF molecules offer unique optical and electronic properties arising from the efficient transition and interconversion between the lowest singlet (S1 ) and triplet (T1 ) excited states. Their ability to harvest triplet excitons for fluorescence through facilitated reverse intersystem crossing (T1 →S...
Efficient deep-blue-emitting tetradentate platinum complexes with a narrow spectral bandwidth are presented, which demonstrate CIEx ≈ 0.15 and CIEy < 0.1. Ultimately, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 24.8% peak external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of (0.147, 0.079) is fabricated using PtON7-dtb.
A coupled oscillator model is developed to explain the observation of gyrotropy in achiral metamaterials. By the action of distinct excitation modes, which only combine under oblique incidence, the measurement of circular birefringence in a split-ring resonator (SRR) array is explained. The symmetry of the SRR resembles the water molecule, and parallels between the systems are drawn.
Artificial photosynthesis of clean fuels has aroused great interest to meet the great demand for clean and renewable energy. Great advances have recently been made in various photoelectrodes with their efficiencies and stabilities significantly improved by the design and implementation of novel structures, which are determinative for the optical absorption, charge-transport path, surface area, and electronic conductivity. This Research News article discusses perspectives of the synthetic methods and micro- ...
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged in the last decade as a promising high resolution lens-less imaging approach for the characterization of various samples. It has made significant technical progress through developments in source, algorithm and imaging methodologies thus enabling important scientific breakthroughs in a broad range of disciplines. In this report, we will introduce the principles of forward scattering CDI and Bragg geometry CDI (BCDI), with an emphasis on the latter. BCDI e...
Smart Morphable Surfaces enable switchable and tunable aerodynamic drag reduction of bluff bodies. Their topography, resembling the morphology of golf balls, can be custom-generated through a wrinkling instability on a curved surface. Pneumatic actuation of these patterns results in the control of the drag coefficient of spherical samples by up to a factor of two, over a range of flow conditions.
A closely interconnected network of MoP nanoparticles (MoP-CA2) with rich nano-pores, large specific surface area, and high conductivity can function as a highly active non-noble metal catalyst for electrochemically generating hydrogen from acidic water. The network exhibits nearly 100% Faradaic efficiency and needs overpotentials of 125 and 200 mV to attain current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm(-2) , respectively. The catalytic activity is maintained for at least 24 h.
Homogeneous dispersion of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles on 3D architectures constructed of graphene and exfoliated graphitic carbon nitride results in hybrids with 3D porous structures, large surface area, high nitrogen content, and good electrical conductivity. This leads to excellent electrocatalytic activity, unusually high poison tolerance, and reliable stability for methanol oxidation, making them of interest as catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.