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PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

20:49 EDT 23rd April 2014 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage which comprises of more than 21 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.  BioPortfolio aims to publish relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with users selected topics.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 309 from Brain : a journal of neurology


Reply: Shared environmental effects on multiple sclerosis susceptibility: conflicting evidence from twin studies.


Occipital bending in depression.

There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) a...


Anatomical correlates of reward-seeking behaviours in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontot...


Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex.

Carpal tunnel syndrome, a median nerve entrapment neuropathy, is characterized by sensorimotor deficits. Recent reports have shown that this syndrome is also characterized by functional and structural neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex of the brain. However, the linkage between this neuroplasticity and the functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown. Sixty-three subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome aged 20-60 years and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were evalu...


Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome.

The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of se...


'Visual snow' - a disorder distinct from persistent migraine aura.

Patients with 'visual snow' report continuous tiny dots in the entire visual field similar to the noise of an analogue television. As they frequently have migraine as a comorbidity with ophthalmological, neurological and radiological studies being normal, they are offered various diagnoses, including persistent migraine aura, post-hallucinogen flashback, or psychogenic disorder. Our aim was to study patients with 'visual snow' to characterize the phenotype. A three-step approach was followed: (i) a chart re...


Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participant...


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition modulates response inhibition in Parkinson's disease.

Impulsivity is common in Parkinson's disease even in the absence of impulse control disorders. It is likely to be multifactorial, including a dopaminergic 'overdose' and structural changes in the frontostriatal circuits for motor control. In addition, we proposed that changes in serotonergic projections to the forebrain also contribute to response inhibition in Parkinson's disease, based on preclinical animal and human studies. We therefore examined whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalop...


Regeneration of diabetic axons is enhanced by selective knockdown of the PTEN gene.

Diabetes mellitus renders both widespread and localized irreversible damage to peripheral axons while imposing critical limitations on their ability to regenerate. A major failure of regenerative capacity thereby imposes a 'double hit' in diabetic patients who frequently develop focal neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome in addition to generalized diffuse polyneuropathy. The mechanisms of diabetic neuron regenerative failure have been speculative and few approaches have offered therapeutic opportunit...


Reply: Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure is caused by mutations in the titin FN3 119 domain.


Episodic ataxia type 1: clinical characterization, quality of life and genotype-phenotype correlation.

Episodic ataxia type 1 is considered a rare neuronal ion channel disorder characterized by brief attacks of unsteadiness and dizziness with persistent myokymia. To characterize the natural history, develop outcome measures for future clinical trials, and correlate genotype with phenotype, we undertook an international, prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine individuals (51% male) were enrolled: median age 37 years (range 15-65 years). We identified 10 different pathogenic point mutations in KCNA1 t...


Cerebral malaria in children: using the retina to study the brain.

Cerebral malaria is a dangerous complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which takes a devastating toll on children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although autopsy studies have improved understanding of cerebral malaria pathology in fatal cases, information about in vivo neurovascular pathogenesis is scarce because brain tissue is inaccessible in life. Surrogate markers may provide insight into pathogenesis and thereby facilitate clinical studies with the ultimate aim of improving the treatment and prognosi...


Asymmetry and heterogeneity of Alzheimer's and frontotemporal pathology in primary progressive aphasia.

Fifty-eight autopsies of patients with primary progressive aphasia are reported. Twenty-three of these were previously described (Mesulam et al., 2008) but had their neuropathological diagnoses updated to fit current criteria. Thirty-five of the cases are new. Their clinical classification was guided as closely as possible by the 2011 consensus guidelines (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011). Tissue diagnoses included Alzheimer's disease in 45% and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in the others, with an app...


A bimodal neurophysiological study of motor control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a step towards core mechanisms?

Knowledge about the core neural mechanisms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a pathophysiologically heterogeneous psychiatric disorder starting in childhood, is still limited. Progress may be achieved by combining different methods and levels of investigation. In the present study, we investigated neural mechanisms of motor control in 19 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (aged 9-14 years) and 21 age-matched typically developing children by relating neural markers of attention...


Ambroxol improves lysosomal biochemistry in glucocerebrosidase mutation-linked Parkinson disease cells.

Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene, which encodes the lysosomal hydrolase glucosylceramidase. Patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation carriers are at increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Indeed, glucocerebrosidase mutations are the most frequent risk factor for Parkinson's disease in the general population. Therefore there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms by which glucocerebrosidase mutations predispose to neuro...


Right anterior temporal lobe dysfunction underlies theory of mind impairments in semantic dementia.

Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the amodal and profound loss of semantic knowledge attributable to the degeneration of the left anterior temporal lobe. Although traditionally conceptualized as a language disorder, patients with semantic dementia display significant alterations in behaviour and socioemotional functioning. Recent evidence points to an impaired capacity for theory of mind in predominantly left-lateralized cases of semantic dementia; however, it re...


Arrested development: early prefrontal lesions impair the maturation of moral judgement.

Learning to make moral judgements based on considerations beyond self-interest is a fundamental aspect of moral development. A deficit in such learning is associated with poor socialization and criminal behaviour. The neural systems required for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency are not well understood. Here we show in a unique sample of neurological patients that focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex, acquired during development, result in an abnormally egocentric pattern...


Nerve growth factor metabolic dysfunction in Down's syndrome brains.

Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons play a key role in cognition. This neuronal system is highly dependent on NGF for its synaptic integrity and the phenotypic maintenance of its cell bodies. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons progressively degenerate in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome, and their atrophy contributes to the manifestation of dementia. Paradoxically, in Alzheimer's disease brains, the synthesis of NGF is not affected and there is abundance of the NGF precursor, proNGF. We have shown t...


Cognitive declines after deep brain stimulation are likely to be attributable to more than caudate penetration and lead location.


Differential reorganization of three syntax-related networks induced by a left frontal glioma.

The opercular/triangular parts of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left lateral premotor cortex are critical in syntactic processing. We have recently indicated that a glioma in one of these regions is sufficient to cause agrammatic comprehension. In the present study, we aimed to show how normally existing syntax-related networks are functionally reorganized by a lesion. Twenty-one patients with a left frontal glioma preoperatively performed a picture-sentence matching task, and underwent functional...




The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining...


Inferring a dual-stream model of mentalizing from associative white matter fibres disconnection.

In the field of cognitive neuroscience, it is increasingly accepted that mentalizing is subserved by a complex frontotemporoparietal cortical network. Some researchers consider that this network can be divided into two distinct but interacting subsystems (the mirror system and the mentalizing system per se), which respectively process low-level, perceptive-based aspects and high-level, inference-based aspects of this sociocognitive function. However, evidence for this type of functional dissociation in a gi...


High molecular mass assemblies of amyloid-β oligomers bind prion protein in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and the generation of oligomeric species of amyloid-β is causal to the initiation and progression of it. Amyloid-β oligomers bind to the N-terminus of plasma membrane-bound cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) initiating a series of events leading to synaptic degeneration. Composition of bound amyloid-β oligomers, binding regions within PrP(C), binding affinities and modifiers of this interaction have been almost exclusively studied in cell culture or mu...


Biochemical stages of amyloid-β peptide aggregation and accumulation in the human brain and their association with symptomatic and pathologically preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β peptide in the brain. N-terminal truncation resulting in the formation of AβN3pE and phosphorylation at serine 8 have been reported to modify aggregation properties of amyloid-β. Biochemically, soluble, dispersible, membrane-associated, and insoluble, plaque-associated amyloid-β aggregates have been distinguished. Soluble and dispersible amyloid-β aggregates are both in mixture with the extracellular or intracellular fluid but dispersi...

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