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PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

07:18 EDT 19th August 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 571 from Brain : a journal of neurology

The Alzheimer's disease transcriptome mimics the neuroprotective signature of IGF-1 receptor-deficient neurons.

Seminal studies using post-mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease evidenced aberrant insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signalling. Addressing causality, work in animal models recently demonstrated that long-term suppression of IGF1R signalling alleviates Alzheimer's disease progression and promotes neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we showed that genetically ablating IGF1R in neurons of the ageing brain efficiently protects from neuroin...

Connectivity in ictal single photon emission computed tomography perfusion: a cortico-cortical evoked potential study.

Subtraction ictal and interictal single photon emission computed tomography can demonstrate complex ictal perfusion patterns. Regions with ictal hyperperfusion are suggested to reflect seizure onset and propagation pathways. The significance of ictal hypoperfusion is not well understood. The aim of this study was to verify whether ictal perfusion changes, both hyper- and hypoperfusion, correspond to electrically connected brain networks. A total of 36 subtraction ictal and interictal perfusion studies were ...

Corrigendum.

Capgras syndrome: neuroanatomical assessment of brain MRI findings in an adolescent patient.

Restless 'rest': intrinsic sensory hyperactivity and disinhibition in post-traumatic stress disorder.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated threat response, and theoretical accounts to date have focused on impaired threat processing and dysregulated prefrontal-cortex-amygdala circuitry. Nevertheless, evidence is accruing for broad, threat-neutral sensory hyperactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. As low-level, sensory processing impacts higher-order operations, such sensory anomalies can contribute to widespread dysfunctions, presenting an additional aetiological mechanism for...

Rare GCH1 heterozygous variants contributing to Parkinson's disease.

Reply: Capgras syndrome: neuroanatomical assessment of brain MRI findings in an adolescent patient.

Cerebrovascular resistance: effects on cognitive decline, cortical atrophy, and progression to dementia.

Evidence for vascular contributions to Alzheimer's disease has been increasingly identified, with increased blood pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow both linked to in vivo biomarkers and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. We therefore hypothesized that an elevated ratio of blood pressure to cerebral blood flow, indicative of cerebrovascular resistance, would exhibit earlier and more widespread associations with Alzheimer's disease than cerebral blood flow alone. Further, we predicted that ...

Brain inflammation accompanies amyloid in the majority of mild cognitive impairment cases due to Alzheimer's disease.

Subjects with mild cognitive impairment associated with cortical amyloid-β have a greatly increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that neuroinflammation occurs early in Alzheimer's disease and would be present in most amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases. 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography was used to determine the amyloid load and detect the extent of neuroinflammation (microglial activation) in 42 mild cognitive impairment ...

Targeting oxidative stress improves disease outcomes in a rat model of acquired epilepsy.

Epilepsy therapy is based on antiseizure drugs that treat the symptom, seizures, rather than the disease and are ineffective in up to 30% of patients. There are no treatments for modifying the disease-preventing seizure onset, reducing severity or improving prognosis. Among the potential molecular targets for attaining these unmet therapeutic needs, we focused on oxidative stress since it is a pathophysiological process commonly occurring in experimental epileptogenesis and observed in human epilepsy. Using...

Autoantibodies to nodal isoforms of neurofascin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

Chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy is a heterogeneous and treatable immune-mediated disorder that lacks biomarkers to support diagnosis. Recent evidence indicates that paranodal proteins (contactin 1, contactin-associated protein 1, and neurofascin-155) are the targets of autoantibodies in subsets of patients showing distinct clinical presentations. Here, we identified neurofascin-186 and neurofascin-140 as the main targets of autoantibodies in five patients presenting IgG reactivity against ...

Age of onset in Huntington's disease is influenced by CAG repeat variations in other polyglutamine disease-associated genes.

Clinical criteria for subtyping Parkinson's disease: biomarkers and longitudinal progression.

Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgro...

Thalamic alterations remote to infarct appear as focal iron accumulation and impact clinical outcome.

Thalamic alterations have been observed in infarcts initially sparing the thalamus but interrupting thalamo-cortical or cortico-thalamic projections. We aimed at extending this knowledge by demonstrating with in vivo imaging sensitive to iron accumulation, one marker of neurodegeneration, that (i) secondary thalamic alterations are focally located in specific thalamic nuclei depending on the initial infarct location; and (ii) such secondary alterations can contribute independently to the long-term outcome. ...

ATAD3 gene cluster deletions cause cerebellar dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial DNA and cholesterol metabolism.

Although mitochondrial disorders are clinically heterogeneous, they frequently involve the central nervous system and are among the most common neurogenetic disorders. Identifying the causal genes has benefited enormously from advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies; however, once the defect is known, researchers face the challenge of deciphering the underlying disease mechanism. Here we characterize large biallelic deletions in the region encoding the ATAD3C, ATAD3B and ATAD3A genes. Although h...

Holes in the leaky migraine blood-brain barrier hypothesis?

In vivo imaging of retinal neurodegeneration at the single cell level in humans.

A novel cortical target to enhance hand motor output in humans with spinal cord injury.

A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhy...

Selective impairment of goal-directed decision-making following lesions to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

Drug repurposing to target proteostasis and prevent neurodegeneration: accelerating translational efforts.

Transdiagnostic neurology: neuropsychiatric symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

Cortical areas needed for choosing actions based on desires.

Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke.

Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated b...

Reply: Beneficial effect of interleukin-2-based immunomodulation in Alzheimer-like pathology.

Beneficial effect of interleukin-2-based immunomodulation in Alzheimer-like pathology.


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