PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

07:09 EDT 27th August 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 341 from Brain : a journal of neurology


Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are s...


Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropat...

Saturday 1st July 1042

Task-induced brain activity in aphasic stroke patients: what is driving recovery?

The estimated prevalence of aphasia in the UK and the USA is 250 000 and 1 000 000, respectively. The commonest aetiology is stroke. The impairment may improve with behavioural therapy, and trials using cortical stimulation or pharmacotherapy are undergoing proof-of-principle investigation, but with mixed results. Aphasia is a heterogeneous syndrome, and the simple classifications according to the Broca-Wernicke-Lichtheim model inadequately describe the diverse communication difficulties with which patients...

Friday 30th June 1042

Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

Dementia associated with cerebrovascular disease is common. It has been reported that ∼30% of elderly patients who survive stroke develop delayed dementia (post-stroke dementia), with most cases being diagnosed as vascular dementia. The pathological substrates associated with post-stroke or vascular dementia are poorly understood, particularly those associated with executive dysfunction. Three separate yet interconnecting circuits control executive function within the frontal lobe involving the dorsolater...

Thursday 29th June 1042

Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined s...




Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.

Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomica...




Widespread grey matter pathology dominates the longitudinal cerebral MRI and clinical landscape of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Diagnosis, stratification and monitoring of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis currently rely on clinical history and examination. The phenotypic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including extramotor cognitive impairments is now well recognized. Candidate biomarkers have shown variable sensitivity and specificity, and studies have been mainly undertaken only cross-sectionally. Sixty patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (without a family history of amyotrophic...


Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention.

Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's tasks and goals to one's actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-f...


Cortical thickness in individuals with non-clinical and clinical psychotic symptoms.

Symptoms that are linked to psychosis are also experienced by individuals who are not in need of care. In the present study, cortical thickness was investigated in these individuals. Fifty individuals with non-clinical auditory verbal hallucinations (most of them also experienced other non-clinical psychotic symptoms), 50 patients with a psychotic disorder and auditory verbal hallucinations, and 50 healthy control subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Data were analysed using FreeSurfer....


Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes.

The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs avail...


Grey matter hypometabolism and atrophy in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment: a two-step process.

The pathophysiological process underlying cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Cerebral atrophy and hypometabolism have been described in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia or mild cognitive impairment with respect to control subjects. However, the exact relationships between atrophy and hypometabolism are still unclear. To determine the extension and topographical distribution of hypometabolism and atrophy in the different cognitive states of Parkinson's disease, we...


Agrin mutations lead to a congenital myasthenic syndrome with distal muscle weakness and atrophy.

Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare diseases resulting from impaired neuromuscular transmission. Their clinical hallmark is fatigable muscle weakness associated with a decremental muscle response to repetitive nerve stimulation and frequently related to postsynaptic defects. Distal myopathies form another clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of primary muscle disorders where weakness and atrophy are restricted to distal muscles, at least ini...

Friday 20th September 1010


Thursday 19th September 1010

The wide spectrum of tubulinopathies: what are the key features for the diagnosis?

Complex cortical malformations associated with mutations in tubulin genes: TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, TUBB3, TUBB5 and TUBG1 commonly referred to as tubulinopathies, are a heterogeneous group of conditions with a wide spectrum of clinical severity. Among the 106 patients selected as having complex cortical malformations, 45 were found to carry mutations in TUBA1A (42.5%), 18 in TUBB2B (16.9%), 11 in TUBB3 (10.4%), three in TUBB5 (2.8%), and three in TUBG1 (2.8%). No mutations were identified in TUBA8. Systemati...

Wednesday 18th September 1010


Thursday 5th September 1010

DARS2 gene clinical spectrum: new ideas regarding an underdiagnosed leukoencephalopathy.

Wednesday 4th September 1010

Reply: DARS2 gene clinical spectrum: new ideas regarding an underdiagnosed leukoencephalopathy.

Tuesday 3rd September 1010

Convergence of pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease: a role for the novel interaction of alpha-synuclein and presenilin 1 in disease.

A growing number of PSEN1 mutations have been associated with dementia with Lewy bodies and familial Alzheimer's disease with concomitant α-synuclein pathology. The objective of this study was to determine if PSEN1 plays a direct role in the development of α-synuclein pathology in these diseases. Using mass spectrometry, immunoelectron microscopy and fluorescence lifetime image microscopy based on Forster resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) we identified α-synuclein as a novel interactor of PSEN1 in wi...


Steering technology for deep brain stimulation.

Sunday 25th May 1005

Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression: when less may be more.

Saturday 24th May 1005

Human memory: insights into hippocampal networks in epilepsy.

Friday 23rd May 1005

Overlapping phenotypes in complex spastic paraplegias SPG11, SPG15, SPG35 and SPG48.

Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, clinically classified in pure and complex forms. Genetically, more than 70 different forms of spastic paraplegias have been characterized. A subgroup of complicate recessive forms has been distinguished for the presence of thin corpus callosum and white matter lesions at brain imaging. This group includes several genetic entities, but most of the cases are caused by mutations in the KIAA1840 (SPG11) and ZFYVE26 genes (S...

Thursday 22nd May 1005

Challenging traditions in apraxia.

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