PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

20:01 EDT 28th May 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 379 from Brain : a journal of neurology


Parietofrontal motor pathways and their association with motor function after stroke.

Corticocortical interactions between the primary motor cortex, the ventral premotor cortex and posterior parietal motor areas, such as the anterior and caudal intraparietal sulcus, are relevant for skilled voluntary hand function. It remains unclear to what extent these brain regions and their interactions also contribute to basic motor functions after stroke. We hypothesized that white matter integrity of the underlying parietofrontal motor pathways between these brain regions might relate to residual moto...


Cortico-pallidal oscillatory connectivity in patients with dystonia.

Primary dystonia has been associated with an underlying dysfunction of a wide network of brain regions including the motor cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. Dystonia can be effectively treated by pallidal deep brain stimulation although the mechanism of this effect is not well understood. Here, we sought to characterize cortico-basal ganglia functional connectivity using a frequency-specific measure of connectivity-coherence. We recorded direct local field potentials from the hum...


Wider minicolumns in autism: a neural basis for altered processing?

Previous studies have found alterations in the columnar organization of the cortex in autism spectrum disorders. Such changes have been suggested to be limited to higher order association areas and to spare primary sensory areas. In addition, evidence from gene-expression studies have suggested that there may be an attenuation of cortical differentiation in autism spectrum disorders. The present study specifically assessed the minicolumns of cells that span the depth of the cortex in a larger sample of auti...


Individualized differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders using neuroanatomical biomarkers.

Magnetic resonance imaging-based markers of schizophrenia have been repeatedly shown to separate patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, but it remains unclear whether these markers reliably distinguish schizophrenia from mood disorders across the life span and generalize to new patients as well as to early stages of these illnesses. The current study used structural MRI-based multivariate pattern classification to (i) identify and cross-validate a differential diagnostic signature separ...


Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of...


Defining high, medium and low impact prognostic factors for developing multiple sclerosis.

Natural history studies have identified factors that predict evolution to multiple sclerosis or risk of disability accumulation over time. Although these studies are based on large multicentre cohorts with long follow-ups, they have limitations such as lack of standardized protocols, a retrospective data collection or lack of a systematic magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis protocol, often resulting in failure to take magnetic resonance and oligoclonal bands into account as joint covariates ...


Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which refle...


Autism: reduced connectivity between cortical areas involved in face expression, theory of mind, and the sense of self.

Whole-brain voxel-based unbiased resting state functional connectivity was analysed in 418 subjects with autism and 509 matched typically developing individuals. We identified a key system in the middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus region that has reduced cortical functional connectivity (and increased with the medial thalamus), which is implicated in face expression processing involved in social behaviour. This system has reduced functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, w...


Expanding the phenotype of GMPPB mutations.

Dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from severe disorders with congenital muscle weakness, eye and brain structural abnormalities and intellectual delay to adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophies without mental retardation. Most frequently the disease onset is congenital or during childhood. The exception is FKRP mutations, in which adult onset is a common presentation. Here we report eight patients from five non-consanguineous families wh...


A gradient in cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis by in vivo quantitative 7 T imaging.

We used a surface-based analysis of T2* relaxation rates at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging, which allows sampling quantitative T2* throughout the cortical width, to map in vivo the spatial distribution of intracortical pathology in multiple sclerosis. Ultra-high resolution quantitative T2* maps were obtained in 10 subjects with clinically isolated syndrome/early multiple sclerosis (≤3 years disease duration), 18 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (≥4 years disease duration), 13 subject...


Reduced cortical innervation of the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys.

The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus are the main entry points for cortical information to the basal ganglia. Parkinson's disease affects not only the function, but also the morphological integrity of some of these inputs and their synaptic targets in the basal ganglia. Significant morphological changes in the cortico-striatal system have already been recognized in patients with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of the disease. To find out whether the primate cortico-subthalamic system is also su...


Reply: A distinct clinical phenotype in a German kindred with motor neuron disease carrying a CHCHD10 mutation.


A distinct clinical phenotype in a German kindred with motor neuron disease carrying a CHCHD10 mutation.


Seizure suppression through manipulating splicing of a voltage-gated sodium channel.

Seizure can result from increased voltage-gated persistent sodium current expression. Although many clinically-approved antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated persistent sodium current, none exclusively repress this current without also adversely affecting the transient voltage-gated sodium current. Achieving a more selective block has significant potential for the treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies show that voltage-gated persistent sodium current amplitude is regulated by alternative splicing offerin...

Thursday 20th April 1160

Differential diagnosis of Mendelian and mitochondrial disorders in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis.

Several single gene disorders share clinical and radiologic characteristics with multiple sclerosis and have the potential to be overlooked in the differential diagnostic evaluation of both adult and paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis. This group includes lysosomal storage disorders, various mitochondrial diseases, other neurometabolic disorders, and several other miscellaneous disorders. Recognition of a single-gene disorder as causal for a patient's 'multiple sclerosis-like' phenotype is critical...


In vivo detection of nerve injury in familial amyloid polyneuropathy by magnetic resonance neurography.

Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a rare, autosomal-dominant inherited multisystem disorder usually manifesting with a rapidly progressive, axonal, distally-symmetric polyneuropathy. The detection of nerve injury by nerve conduction studies is limited, due to preferential involvement of small-fibres in early stages. We investigated whether lower limb nerve-injury can be detected, localized and quantified in vivo by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. We prospectively included 20 p...


Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies: A MRI pattern-based approach in a comprehensive study of 154 patients.

Inherited white matter diseases are rare and heterogeneous disorders usually encountered in infancy. Adult-onset forms are increasingly recognized. Our objectives were to determine relative frequencies of genetic leukoencephalopathies in a cohort of adult-onset patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of a systematic diagnostic approach. Inclusion criteria of this retrospective study were: (i) symmetrical involvement of white matter on the first available brain MRI; (ii) age of onset above 16 years. Patie...


Transplantation of cerebellar neural stem cells improves motor coordination and neuropathology in Machado-Joseph disease mice.

Machado-Joseph disease is a neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Patients with Machado-Joseph disease exhibit significant motor impairments such as gait ataxia, associated with multiple neuropathological changes including mutant ATXN3 inclusions, marked neuronal loss and atrophy of the cerebellum. Thus, an effective treatment of symptomatic patients with Machado-Joseph disease may require cell replacement, which we investigated in this study. For this purpose, we injected cerebellar neural...

Thursday 6th December 1122

Parkinson's disease in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 mutation carriers.

Wednesday 5th December 1122

Reply: Parkinson's disease in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 mutation carriers.




Leigh syndrome: the genetic heterogeneity story continues.


The remarkable properties of amyloid-β derived from human Alzheimer's disease brain: swinging the streetlight.


A serum microRNA signature for amyotrophic lateral sclersosis reveals convergent RNA processing defects and identifies presymptomatic mutation carriers.


Neurovascular regulation is critical for metabolic recovery from spreading depression.

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