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PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

09:35 EST 10th December 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 467 from Brain : a journal of neurology

Progressive multiple sclerosis: from pathogenic mechanisms to treatment.

During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthe...

MORC2 mutation causes severe spinal muscular atrophy-phenotype, cerebellar atrophy, and diaphragmatic paralysis.

Medial reward and lateral non-reward orbitofrontal cortex circuits change in opposite directions in depression.

The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial o...

Pathogenic variants in KCTD7 perturb neuronal K+ fluxes and glutamine transport.

Progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. We here present two affected brothers. At 9 months of age the elder brother developed ataxia and myoclonic jerks. In his second year he lost the ability to walk and talk, and he developed drug-resistant progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The cerebrospinal fluid level of glutamate was decreased while glutamine was increased. His younger brother manifested simil...

Vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING): the contribution of cerebrovascular pathology to cognitive impairment.

There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and sc...

Correlating magnetoencephalography to stereo-electroencephalography in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery.

Magnetoencephalography and stereo-electroencephalography are often necessary in the course of the non-invasive and invasive presurgical evaluation of challenging patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies. In this study, we aim to examine the significance of magnetoencephalography dipole clusters and their relationship to stereo-electroencephalography findings, area of surgical resection, and seizure outcome. We also aim to define the positive and negative predictors based on magnetoencephalograph...

Brainwaves in concert: the 20th century sonification of the electroencephalogram.

Human cerebrospinal fluid monoclonal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor autoantibodies are sufficient for encephalitis pathogenesis.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently discovered autoimmune syndrome associated with psychosis, dyskinesias, and seizures. Little is known about the cerebrospinal fluid autoantibody repertoire. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR are thought to be pathogenic; however, direct proof is lacking as previous experiments could not distinguish the contribution of further anti-neuronal antibodies. Using single cell cloning of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light cha...

The promises and pitfalls of applying computational models to neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Computational models have become an integral part of basic neuroscience and have facilitated some of the major advances in the field. More recently, such models have also been applied to the understanding of disruptions in brain function. In this review, using examples and a simple analogy, we discuss the potential for computational models to inform our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. We argue that they may provide, in unprecedented detail, an understanding of the neurobiological and mental...

Loss of function of SLC25A46 causes lethal congenital pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Disturbed mitochondrial fusion and fission have been linked to various neurodegenerative disorders. In siblings from two unrelated families who died soon after birth with a profound neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pontocerebellar hypoplasia and apnoea, we discovered a missense mutation and an exonic deletion in the SLC25A46 gene encoding a mitochondrial protein recently implicated in optic atrophy spectrum disorder. We performed functional studies that confirmed the mitochondrial localization a...

Reply: ARID1B mutations are the major genetic cause of corpus callosum anomalies in patients with intellectual disability.

ARID1B mutations are the major genetic cause of corpus callosum anomalies in patients with intellectual disability.

Widespread changes in network activity allow non-invasive detection of mesial temporal lobe seizures.

Decades of experience with intracranial recordings in patients with epilepsy have demonstrated that seizures can occur in deep cortical regions such as the mesial temporal lobes without showing any obvious signs of seizure activity on scalp electroencephalogram. Predicated on the idea that these seizures are purely focal, currently, the only way to detect these 'scalp-negative seizures' is with intracranial recordings. However, intracranial recordings are only rarely performed in patients with epilepsy, and...

Auto-antibodies to contactin-associated protein 1 (Caspr) in two patients with painful inflammatory neuropathy.

Auto-antibodies against the paranodal proteins neurofascin-155 and contactin-1 have recently been described in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype and response to treatment. Contactin-associated protein 1 (Caspr, encoded by CNTNAP1) is a paranodal protein that is attached to neurofascin-155 and contactin-1 (CNTN1) but has not yet been identified as a sole antigen in patients with inflammatory neuropathies. In the prese...

'States of Mind: Tracing the edges of consciousness'.

Dynamic relationships between age, amyloid-β deposition, and glucose metabolism link to the regional vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease.

Although some brain regions such as precuneus and lateral temporo-parietal cortex have been shown to be more vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease than other areas, a mechanism underlying the differential regional vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease remains to be elucidated. Using fluorodeoxyglucose and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging glucose metabolism and amyloid-β deposition, we tested whether and how life-long changes in glucose metabolism relate to amyloid-β deposition and Alz...

Dopamine D2 receptor gene variants and response to rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease: a pharmacogenetic study.

The treatment of early Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic agents remains the mainstay of symptomatic therapy for this incurable neurodegenerative disorder. However, clinical responses to dopaminergic drugs vary substantially from person to person due to individual-, drug- and disease-related factors that may in part be genetically determined. Using clinical data and DNA samples ascertained through the largest placebo-controlled clinical trial of the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline (ClinicalTria...

Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer's disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells i...

C9orf72 mutations and the puzzle of cerebro-cerebellar network degeneration.

The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making.

Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus-the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease-in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for ad...

Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities: an MRI study.

A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were establi...

Reply: SCA23 and prodynorphin: is it time for gene retraction?

SCA23 and prodynorphin: is it time for gene retraction?

Corticolimbic anatomical characteristics predetermine risk for chronic pain.

Mechanisms of chronic pain remain poorly understood. We tracked brain properties in subacute back pain patients longitudinally for 3 years as they either recovered from or transitioned to chronic pain. Whole-brain comparisons indicated corticolimbic, but not pain-related circuitry, white matter connections predisposed patients to chronic pain. Intra-corticolimbic white matter connectivity analysis identified three segregated communities: dorsal medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala-accumbens, ventral medial pre...

CSF1R mosaicism in a family with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids.

Mutations in the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) have recently been discovered as causal for hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids. We identified a novel, heterozygous missense mutation in CSF1R [c.1990G > A p.(E664K)] by exome sequencing in five members of a family with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids. Three affected siblings had characteristic white matter abnormalities and presented with progressive neurological decline. In the fourth affec...


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