PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

08:04 EDT 27th April 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 375 from Brain : a journal of neurology

1224375

Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of...

1220539

Defining high, medium and low impact prognostic factors for developing multiple sclerosis.

Natural history studies have identified factors that predict evolution to multiple sclerosis or risk of disability accumulation over time. Although these studies are based on large multicentre cohorts with long follow-ups, they have limitations such as lack of standardized protocols, a retrospective data collection or lack of a systematic magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis protocol, often resulting in failure to take magnetic resonance and oligoclonal bands into account as joint covariates ...

1211524

Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which refle...

1197671

Autism: reduced connectivity between cortical areas involved in face expression, theory of mind, and the sense of self.

Whole-brain voxel-based unbiased resting state functional connectivity was analysed in 418 subjects with autism and 509 matched typically developing individuals. We identified a key system in the middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus region that has reduced cortical functional connectivity (and increased with the medial thalamus), which is implicated in face expression processing involved in social behaviour. This system has reduced functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, w...

1170393

Expanding the phenotype of GMPPB mutations.

Dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from severe disorders with congenital muscle weakness, eye and brain structural abnormalities and intellectual delay to adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophies without mental retardation. Most frequently the disease onset is congenital or during childhood. The exception is FKRP mutations, in which adult onset is a common presentation. Here we report eight patients from five non-consanguineous families wh...

1170392

A gradient in cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis by in vivo quantitative 7 T imaging.

We used a surface-based analysis of T2* relaxation rates at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging, which allows sampling quantitative T2* throughout the cortical width, to map in vivo the spatial distribution of intracortical pathology in multiple sclerosis. Ultra-high resolution quantitative T2* maps were obtained in 10 subjects with clinically isolated syndrome/early multiple sclerosis (≤3 years disease duration), 18 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (≥4 years disease duration), 13 subject...

1170391

Reduced cortical innervation of the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys.

The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus are the main entry points for cortical information to the basal ganglia. Parkinson's disease affects not only the function, but also the morphological integrity of some of these inputs and their synaptic targets in the basal ganglia. Significant morphological changes in the cortico-striatal system have already been recognized in patients with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of the disease. To find out whether the primate cortico-subthalamic system is also su...

1170390

Reply: A distinct clinical phenotype in a German kindred with motor neuron disease carrying a CHCHD10 mutation.

1170389

A distinct clinical phenotype in a German kindred with motor neuron disease carrying a CHCHD10 mutation.

1170388

Seizure suppression through manipulating splicing of a voltage-gated sodium channel.

Seizure can result from increased voltage-gated persistent sodium current expression. Although many clinically-approved antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated persistent sodium current, none exclusively repress this current without also adversely affecting the transient voltage-gated sodium current. Achieving a more selective block has significant potential for the treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies show that voltage-gated persistent sodium current amplitude is regulated by alternative splicing offerin...

Thursday 20th April 1160

Differential diagnosis of Mendelian and mitochondrial disorders in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis.

Several single gene disorders share clinical and radiologic characteristics with multiple sclerosis and have the potential to be overlooked in the differential diagnostic evaluation of both adult and paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis. This group includes lysosomal storage disorders, various mitochondrial diseases, other neurometabolic disorders, and several other miscellaneous disorders. Recognition of a single-gene disorder as causal for a patient's 'multiple sclerosis-like' phenotype is critical...

1131829

In vivo detection of nerve injury in familial amyloid polyneuropathy by magnetic resonance neurography.

Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a rare, autosomal-dominant inherited multisystem disorder usually manifesting with a rapidly progressive, axonal, distally-symmetric polyneuropathy. The detection of nerve injury by nerve conduction studies is limited, due to preferential involvement of small-fibres in early stages. We investigated whether lower limb nerve-injury can be detected, localized and quantified in vivo by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. We prospectively included 20 p...

1130978

Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies: A MRI pattern-based approach in a comprehensive study of 154 patients.

Inherited white matter diseases are rare and heterogeneous disorders usually encountered in infancy. Adult-onset forms are increasingly recognized. Our objectives were to determine relative frequencies of genetic leukoencephalopathies in a cohort of adult-onset patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of a systematic diagnostic approach. Inclusion criteria of this retrospective study were: (i) symmetrical involvement of white matter on the first available brain MRI; (ii) age of onset above 16 years. Patie...

1130977

Transplantation of cerebellar neural stem cells improves motor coordination and neuropathology in Machado-Joseph disease mice.

Machado-Joseph disease is a neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Patients with Machado-Joseph disease exhibit significant motor impairments such as gait ataxia, associated with multiple neuropathological changes including mutant ATXN3 inclusions, marked neuronal loss and atrophy of the cerebellum. Thus, an effective treatment of symptomatic patients with Machado-Joseph disease may require cell replacement, which we investigated in this study. For this purpose, we injected cerebellar neural...

Thursday 6th December 1122

Parkinson's disease in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 mutation carriers.

Wednesday 5th December 1122

Reply: Parkinson's disease in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 mutation carriers.

1105755

Editorial.

1105754

Leigh syndrome: the genetic heterogeneity story continues.

1105753

The remarkable properties of amyloid-β derived from human Alzheimer's disease brain: swinging the streetlight.

1105752

A serum microRNA signature for amyotrophic lateral sclersosis reveals convergent RNA processing defects and identifies presymptomatic mutation carriers.

1105751

Neurovascular regulation is critical for metabolic recovery from spreading depression.

1085798

Reply: Intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic strokes: a call for reappraisal.

1085797

Membrane-shaping disorders: a common pathway in axon degeneration.

Neurons with long projections are particularly liable to damage, which is reflected by a large group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect these neurons. In the group of hereditary spastic paraplegias motor axons of the central nervous system degenerate, while distal pure motor neuropathies, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorders and the group of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are characterized by degeneration of peripheral nerve fibres. Because the underlying pathologies sha...

1085796

Intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic strokes: a call for reappraisal.

1085795

Peripheral neuropathy predicts nuclear gene defect in patients with mitochondrial ophthalmoplegia.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a common clinical feature in mitochondrial disease caused by nuclear DNA defects and single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions and is less frequently associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Peripheral neuropathy is also a frequent manifestation of mitochondrial disease, although its prevalence and characteristics varies considerably among the different syndromes and genetic aetiologies. Based on clinical observations, we systematically investigated...


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