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PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

15:46 EDT 29th April 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 429 from Brain : a journal of neurology

Is Huntington's disease a tauopathy?

Tauopathies are a subclass of neurodegenerative diseases typified by the deposition of abnormal microtubule-associated tau protein within the cerebral tissue. Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and some fronto-temporal dementias are examples of the extended family of tauopathies. In the last decades, intermittent reports of cerebral tau pathology in individuals afflicted with Huntington's disease-an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that manifes...

Glial and axonal changes in systemic lupus erythematosus measured with diffusion of intracellular metabolites.

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus is common and results in several neurological and psychiatric symptoms that are poorly linked to standard magnetic resonance imaging outcome. Magnetic resonance imaging methods sensitive to tissue microstructural changes, such as diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging, show some correlation with neuropsychiatric systemic lupu...

Widespread synaptic loss in multiple sclerosis.

Cerebellar damage limits reinforcement learning.

What lies beneath grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis?

Altered intra- and inter-network dynamics reflect symptom dimensions in childhood-onset schizophrenia.

Corrigendum.

Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R inhibits microglial proliferation and prevents the progression of Alzheimer's-like pathology.

The proliferation and activation of microglial cells is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions. This mechanism is regulated by the activation of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), thus providing a target that may prevent the progression of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the study of microglial proliferation in Alzheimer's disease and validation of the efficacy of CSF1R-inhibiting strategies have not yet been reported. In this study we found increased proliferatio...

Free-water imaging in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism.

Conventional single tensor diffusion analysis models have provided mixed findings in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease, but recent work using a bi-tensor analysis model has shown more promising results. Using a bi-tensor model, free-water values were found to be increased in the posterior substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease compared with controls at a single site and in a multi-site cohort. Further, free-water increased longitudinally over 1 year in the posterior substantia nigra of Parkinson'...

Dopamine selectively remediates 'model-based' reward learning: a computational approach.

Patients with loss of dopamine due to Parkinson's disease are impaired at learning from reward. However, it remains unknown precisely which aspect of learning is impaired. In particular, learning from reward, or reinforcement learning, can be driven by two distinct computational processes. One involves habitual stamping-in of stimulus-response associations, hypothesized to arise computationally from 'model-free' learning. The other, 'model-based' learning, involves learning a model of the world that is beli...

Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia.

Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word's letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesio...

Loss of the smallest subunit of cytochrome c oxidase, COX8A, causes Leigh-like syndrome and epilepsy.

Isolated cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) deficiency is one of the most frequent respiratory chain defects in humans and is usually caused by mutations in proteins required for assembly of the complex. Mutations in nuclear-encoded structural subunits are very rare. In a patient with Leigh-like syndrome presenting with leukodystrophy and severe epilepsy, we identified a homozygous splice site mutation in COX8A, which codes for the ubiquitously expressed isoform of subunit VIII, the smallest nuclear-encoded ...

Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target.

Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of severe long-term disability yet lacks drug therapies that promote the repair phase of recovery. This repair phase of stroke occurs days to months after stroke onset and involves brain remapping and plasticity within the peri-infarct zone. Elucidating mechanisms that promote this plasticity is critical for the development of new therapeutics with a broad treatment window. Inhibiting tonic (extrasynaptic) GABA signalling during the repair phase was reported to enhance ...

Is amyloid-β harmful to the brain? Insights from human imaging studies.

Although the amyloid-β protein associated with the Alzheimer's disease plaque has been detectable in living people for over a decade, its importance in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is still debated. The frequent presence of amyloid-β in the brains of cognitively healthy older people has been interpreted as evidence against a causative role. If amyloid-β is crucial to the development of Alzheimer's disease, it should be associated with other Alzheimer's disease-like neurological changes. This r...

Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic s...

Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in t...

Reply: Essential tremor in 'The tremulous hand of Worcester': additional comments.

Essential tremor in 'The tremulous hand of Worcester': additional comments.

Editorial.

Gone fission: an asymptomatic STAT2 mutation elongates mitochondria and causes human disease following viral infection.

Seizures at the scale of individual neurons.

Cause or compensation? Complex changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical networks in pathological action tremor.

Using oscillations to understand recovery after stroke.

Corrigendum.

Fingolimod versus interferon beta/glatiramer acetate after natalizumab suspension in multiple sclerosis.

The comparative effectiveness of fingolimod versus interferon beta/glatiramer acetate was assessed in a multicentre, observational, prospectively acquired cohort study including 613 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis discontinuing natalizumab in the Italian iMedWeb registry. First, after natalizumab suspension, the relapse risk during the untreated wash-out period and during the course of switch therapies was estimated through Poisson regression analyses in separated models. During the wash-out peri...


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