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PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

13:52 EDT 25th June 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 453 from Brain : a journal of neurology

'States of Mind: Tracing the edges of consciousness'.

Dynamic relationships between age, amyloid-β deposition, and glucose metabolism link to the regional vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease.

Although some brain regions such as precuneus and lateral temporo-parietal cortex have been shown to be more vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease than other areas, a mechanism underlying the differential regional vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease remains to be elucidated. Using fluorodeoxyglucose and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging glucose metabolism and amyloid-β deposition, we tested whether and how life-long changes in glucose metabolism relate to amyloid-β deposition and Alz...

Dopamine D2 receptor gene variants and response to rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease: a pharmacogenetic study.

The treatment of early Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic agents remains the mainstay of symptomatic therapy for this incurable neurodegenerative disorder. However, clinical responses to dopaminergic drugs vary substantially from person to person due to individual-, drug- and disease-related factors that may in part be genetically determined. Using clinical data and DNA samples ascertained through the largest placebo-controlled clinical trial of the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline (ClinicalTria...

Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer's disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells i...

C9orf72 mutations and the puzzle of cerebro-cerebellar network degeneration.

The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making.

Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus-the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease-in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for ad...

Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities: an MRI study.

A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were establi...

Reply: SCA23 and prodynorphin: is it time for gene retraction?

SCA23 and prodynorphin: is it time for gene retraction?

Corticolimbic anatomical characteristics predetermine risk for chronic pain.

Mechanisms of chronic pain remain poorly understood. We tracked brain properties in subacute back pain patients longitudinally for 3 years as they either recovered from or transitioned to chronic pain. Whole-brain comparisons indicated corticolimbic, but not pain-related circuitry, white matter connections predisposed patients to chronic pain. Intra-corticolimbic white matter connectivity analysis identified three segregated communities: dorsal medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala-accumbens, ventral medial pre...

CSF1R mosaicism in a family with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids.

Mutations in the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) have recently been discovered as causal for hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids. We identified a novel, heterozygous missense mutation in CSF1R [c.1990G > A p.(E664K)] by exome sequencing in five members of a family with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids. Three affected siblings had characteristic white matter abnormalities and presented with progressive neurological decline. In the fourth affec...

Reply: Role of cortico-pallidal connectivity in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

The migraine generator revisited: continuous scanning of the migraine cycle over 30 days and three spontaneous attacks.

Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and later functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a particular brainstem area that is believed to be specifically activated in migraine during, but not outside of the attack, and consequently has been coined the 'migraine generator'. However, the pathophysiological concept behind this term is not undisputed and typical migraine premonitory symptoms such as fatigue and yawning, but also a typical association of attacks to circadian and menstrual cy...

Microvascular alterations and the role of complement in dermatomyositis.

Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathological basis of perifascicular muscle fibre atrophy in dermatomyositis. These include ischaemia due to immune-mediated microvascular injury, enhanced expression of type 1 interferon-induced gene transcripts in perifascicular capillaries and muscle fibres, and occlusion of larger perimysial blood vessels. Microvascular complement deposition is a feature of dermatomyositis pathology but the trigger for complement activation, the predominant compleme...

Universal and language-specific sublexical cues in speech perception: a novel electroencephalography-lesion approach.

The phonological structure of speech supports the highly automatic mapping of sound to meaning. While it is uncontroversial that phonotactic knowledge acts upon lexical access, it is unclear at what stage these combinatorial rules, governing phonological well-formedness in a given language, shape speech comprehension. Moreover few studies have investigated the neuronal network affording this important step in speech comprehension. Therefore we asked 70 participants-half of whom suffered from a chronic left ...

Migraine photophobia originating in cone-driven retinal pathways.

Migraine headache is uniquely exacerbated by light. Using psychophysical assessments in patients with normal eyesight we found that green light exacerbates migraine headache significantly less than white, blue, amber or red lights. To delineate mechanisms, we used electroretinography and visual evoked potential recording in patients, and multi-unit recording of dura- and light-sensitive thalamic neurons in rats to show that green activates cone-driven retinal pathways to a lesser extent than white, blue and...

In vivo imaging of neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease using 18F-AV-1451 PET.

The tau tangle ligand (18)F-AV-1451 ((18)F-T807) binds to neuromelanin in the midbrain, and may therefore be a measure of the pigmented dopaminergic neuronal count in the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Extrapolation of post-mortem data predicts that a ∼30% decline of nigral dopamine neurons is necessary to cause motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Putamen dopamine terminal loss at disease onset most likely exceeds that of the nigral c...

Role of cortico-pallidal connectivity in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

Thalamic pathology and memory loss in early Alzheimer's disease: moving the focus from the medial temporal lobe to Papez circuit.

It is widely assumed that incipient protein pathology in the medial temporal lobe instigates the loss of episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease, one of the earliest cognitive deficits in this type of dementia. Within this region, the hippocampus is seen as the most vital for episodic memory. Consequently, research into the causes of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease continues to centre on hippocampal dysfunction and how disease-modifying therapies in this region can potentially alleviate memory symptomolog...

MicroRNAs targeting TGFβ signalling underlie the regulatory T cell defect in multiple sclerosis.

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling is critical for regulatory T cell development and function, and regulatory T cell dysregulation is a common observation in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. In a comprehensive miRNA profiling study of patients with multiple sclerosis naïve CD4 T cells, 19 differentially expressed miRNAs predicted to target the TGFβ signalling pathway were identified, leading to the hypothesis that miRNAs may be responsible for the regulatory T cell defect...

A causal role for the anterior mid-cingulate cortex in negative affect and cognitive control.

Converging evidence has linked the anterior mid-cingulate cortex to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. It has previously been proposed that this region uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions. Studies on the effects of lesions allow causal inferences about brain function; however, naturally occurring lesions in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex are rare. In two studies we therefore recruited 94 volunteers, comprising 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression...

The unfolded protein response: mechanisms and therapy of neurodegeneration.

Activation of the unfolded protein response is emerging as a common theme in protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases, with relevant markers observed in patient tissue and mouse models. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of the pathway in several mouse models has shown that this is not a passive consequence of the neurodegeneration process. Rather, overactivation of the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK, encoded by EIF2AK3) branch of the unfolded protein response directly contributes to dis...

Reply: C9orf72 mutations and the puzzle of cerebro-cerebellar network degeneration.

Emerging therapies for mitochondrial disorders.

Mitochondrial disorders are a diverse group of debilitating conditions resulting from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations that affect multiple organs, often including the central and peripheral nervous system. Despite major advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms, effective treatments have not been forthcoming. For over five decades patients have been treated with different vitamins, co-factors and nutritional supplements, but with no proven benefit. There is therefore a clear need for...

Is Huntington's disease a tauopathy?

Tauopathies are a subclass of neurodegenerative diseases typified by the deposition of abnormal microtubule-associated tau protein within the cerebral tissue. Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and some fronto-temporal dementias are examples of the extended family of tauopathies. In the last decades, intermittent reports of cerebral tau pathology in individuals afflicted with Huntington's disease-an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that manifes...


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