PubMed Journal Database | Brain : a journal of neurology RSS

05:24 EDT 23rd October 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 354 from Brain : a journal of neurology

1085798

Reply: Intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic strokes: a call for reappraisal.

1085797

Membrane-shaping disorders: a common pathway in axon degeneration.

Neurons with long projections are particularly liable to damage, which is reflected by a large group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect these neurons. In the group of hereditary spastic paraplegias motor axons of the central nervous system degenerate, while distal pure motor neuropathies, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorders and the group of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are characterized by degeneration of peripheral nerve fibres. Because the underlying pathologies sha...

1085796

Intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic strokes: a call for reappraisal.

1085795

Peripheral neuropathy predicts nuclear gene defect in patients with mitochondrial ophthalmoplegia.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a common clinical feature in mitochondrial disease caused by nuclear DNA defects and single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions and is less frequently associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Peripheral neuropathy is also a frequent manifestation of mitochondrial disease, although its prevalence and characteristics varies considerably among the different syndromes and genetic aetiologies. Based on clinical observations, we systematically investigated...

1085794

Immunotherapy alleviates amyloid-associated synaptic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

Cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease is attributed to loss of functional synapses, most likely caused by synaptotoxic, oligomeric forms of amyloid-β. Many treatment options aim at reducing amyloid-β levels in the brain, either by decreasing its production or by increasing its clearance. We quantified the effects of immunotherapy directed against oligomeric amyloid-β in Tg2576 mice, a mouse model of familial Alzheimer's disease. Treatment of 12-month-old mice with oligomer-specific (A-887755) or confo...

1068737

Big Data: could it ever cure Alzheimer's disease?

1068736

Autonomic failure in CANVAS syndrome.

1068735

Identification of the SCA21 disease gene: remaining challenges and promising opportunities.

1068734

'Don't delay, start today': delaying levodopa does not delay motor complications.

1068733

Genetic characterization of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

1064732

Serum microRNAs in patients with genetic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pre-manifest mutation carriers.

Knowledge about the nature of pathomolecular alterations preceding onset of symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is largely lacking. It could not only pave the way for the discovery of valuable therapeutic targets but might also govern future concepts of pre-manifest disease modifying treatments. MicroRNAs are central regulators of transcriptome plasticity and participate in pathogenic cascades and/or mirror cellular adaptation to insults. We obtained comprehensive expression profiles of microRNAs in t...

Tuesday 5th July 1058

Apraxia: a gestural or a cognitive disorder?

Monday 4th July 1058

Reply: Apraxia: a gestural or a cognitive disorder?

1057507

Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are s...

1044738

Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropat...

Saturday 1st July 1042

Task-induced brain activity in aphasic stroke patients: what is driving recovery?

The estimated prevalence of aphasia in the UK and the USA is 250 000 and 1 000 000, respectively. The commonest aetiology is stroke. The impairment may improve with behavioural therapy, and trials using cortical stimulation or pharmacotherapy are undergoing proof-of-principle investigation, but with mixed results. Aphasia is a heterogeneous syndrome, and the simple classifications according to the Broca-Wernicke-Lichtheim model inadequately describe the diverse communication difficulties with which patients...

Friday 30th June 1042

Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

Dementia associated with cerebrovascular disease is common. It has been reported that ∼30% of elderly patients who survive stroke develop delayed dementia (post-stroke dementia), with most cases being diagnosed as vascular dementia. The pathological substrates associated with post-stroke or vascular dementia are poorly understood, particularly those associated with executive dysfunction. Three separate yet interconnecting circuits control executive function within the frontal lobe involving the dorsolater...

Thursday 29th June 1042

Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined s...

1035944

Editorial.

1035943

Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.

Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomica...

1035942

Corrigendum.

1035936

Widespread grey matter pathology dominates the longitudinal cerebral MRI and clinical landscape of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Diagnosis, stratification and monitoring of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis currently rely on clinical history and examination. The phenotypic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including extramotor cognitive impairments is now well recognized. Candidate biomarkers have shown variable sensitivity and specificity, and studies have been mainly undertaken only cross-sectionally. Sixty patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (without a family history of amyotrophic...

1035935

Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention.

Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's tasks and goals to one's actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-f...

1035934

Cortical thickness in individuals with non-clinical and clinical psychotic symptoms.

Symptoms that are linked to psychosis are also experienced by individuals who are not in need of care. In the present study, cortical thickness was investigated in these individuals. Fifty individuals with non-clinical auditory verbal hallucinations (most of them also experienced other non-clinical psychotic symptoms), 50 patients with a psychotic disorder and auditory verbal hallucinations, and 50 healthy control subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Data were analysed using FreeSurfer....

1035933

Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes.

The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs avail...


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