PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

20:07 EDT 1st April 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 236 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Sunday 15th April 1201

Rapid detection of copper chlorophyll in vegetable oils based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

The addition of copper chlorophyll and its derivatives (Cu-Chl) to vegetable oils to disguise them as more expensive oils, such as virgin olive oils, would not only create public confusion, but also disturb the olive oil market. Given that existing detection methods of Ch-Chl in oils, such as LC-MS are costly and time consuming, it is imperative to develop economical and fast analytical techniques to provide information quickly. This paper demonstrates a rapid analytical method based on surface-enhanced Ram...

Saturday 14th April 1201

Ultra-HPLC method for quality and adulterant assessment of steviol glycosides sweeteners - Stevia rebaudiana and stevia products.

Stevia products are advertised as a zero-calorie sweetener. Glucose should not be an intrinsic component of this product, but it has been identified from some of stevia products in a preliminary study. An UHPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative determination of glucose from stevia products. After stevia products reacted with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), PMP derivatives were analysed and glucose was found in seven out of 35 products in the range 0.3-91.5% (w/w). Two products, SPR-12 and S...

Friday 13th April 1201

A quantum dot-based immunoassay for screening of tylosin and tilmicosin in edible animal tissues.

A rapid, indirect competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-FLISA) based on quantum dots (QDs) as the fluorescent marker was developed for the detection of tylosin and tilmicosin in edible animal tissues. The end point fluorescent detection system was carried out using QDs conjugated with goat anti-mouse secondary antibody. The limits of detection (LODs) for the determination of tylosin and tilmicosin were 0.02 and 0.04 μg kg(-1), respectively. This detection method was used to analyse spik...


Other factors to consider in formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters in oil processes.

This paper examines the processing steps of extracting palm oil from fresh fruit bunches in a way that may impact on the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters (3-MCPD esters), particularly during refining. Diacylglycerols (DAGs) do not appear to be a critical factor when crude palm oils are extracted from various qualities of fruit bunches. Highly hydrolysed oils, in spite of the high free fatty acid (FFA) contents, did not show exceptionally high DAGs, and the oils did not display a higher formation o...


Aerobic and anaerobic in vitro testing of feed additives claiming to detoxify deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium which frequently contaminate maize and grain cereals. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed endangers animal health and leads to economic losses in animal production. Several mycotoxin elimination strategies, including the use of commercially available DON and ZEN detoxifying agents, have been developed. However, frequently there is no scientific proof of the efficacy of such adsorbents and degrading products. We therefo...


Simultaneous determination of sweeteners in beverages by LC-MS/MS.

A new method was established for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners and a degradation product in beverages by using LC-MS/MS. An ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used as the LC column and 0.1% each of aqueous formic acid and formic acid in acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase. A simple and rapid determination of sweeteners was possible by diluting with a solvent, and in the case of some samples containing a large amount of foreign matter, after pre-treatment by diluti...


Determination and quantification of the emetic toxin cereulide from Bacillus cereus in pasta, rice and cream with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for determination and quantification of cereulide in cream, rice and pasta. Samples are homogenised after addition of amylase to cooked rice and pasta, and cereulide is extracted with methanol. After the removal of water with methyl-tert butyl ether/hexane and evaporation until dryness, no further purification was required before analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Recently, both cereulide and (13)C6-cereulide has become co...

Wednesday 17th October 1195

Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above ...


Analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison between time-of-flight and Orbitrap.

The use of medium-high-resolution mass spectrometers (M-HRMS) provides many advantages in multi-residue analysis. A comparison between two mass spectrometers, medium-resolution (MRMS) time-of-flight (TOF) and high-resolution (HRMS) Orbitrap, has been carried out for the analysis of toxic compounds in animal feed. More than 300 compounds belonging to several classes of veterinary drugs (VDs) and pesticides have been determined in different animal feed samples using a generic extraction method. The use of a c...


Effectiveness of hand sorting, flotation/washing, dehulling and combinations thereof on the decontamination of mycotoxin contaminated white maize.

Maize is one of the major staple foods of sub-Saharan Africa and is consumed as whole or dehulled grain. In this region, where the environmental conditions favour fungal growth and mycotoxin production, the majority of the population are subsistence consumers who, unfortunately, have little or no access to mycotoxin testing of their food. In an attempt to develop feasible reduction strategies in dietary mycotoxin exposure of the population, a three-factorial design experiment was conducted to examine and co...


Rapid screening for the adulterants of Berberis aristata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and principal component analysis for discrimination.

Adulteration or substitution of commercial Berberis aristata and its herbal products with inferior quality substituents is very common. Metabolic profiling of Berberis aristata, along with its common adulterants/contaminants/substituents like Berberis asiatica, Mahonia borealis and Coscinium fenestratum was rapidly carried out using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry to generate the chemical fingerprints for the differentiation of these species. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of main...


Set-up of a multivariate approach based on serum biomarkers as an alternative strategy for the screening evaluation of the potential abuse of growth promoters in veal calves.

A chemometric class modelling strategy (unequal dispersed classes - UNEQ) was applied for the first time as a possible screening method to monitor the abuse of growth promoters in veal calves. Five serum biomarkers, known to reflect the exposure to classes of compounds illegally used as growth promoters, were determined from 50 untreated animals in order to design a model of controls, representing veal calves reared under good, safe and highly standardised breeding conditions. The class modelling was applie...


Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaminoquinoline magnetic nanocomposite for the extraction and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in food samples.

This work describes a novel Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaminoquinoline magnetic nanocomposite and its application in the pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions. The parameters affecting the pre-concentration procedure were optimised by a Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology. Three variables (extraction time, magnetic sorbent amount, and pH value) were selected as the main factors affecting the sorption step, while four variables (type, volume and concentration of the eluent; and elution time) wer...


Determination of anabolic agents in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

A sensitive method for the identification and quantification of anabolic steroids and clenbuterol at trace levels in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in APCI mode using a single stage Orbitrap analyser operating at a resolution power of 100,000 FWHM was developed and validated. One gram of dietary supplement was added with testosterone-d3 as internal standard, dissolved in methanol, evaporated to dryness, diluted in sodium hydroxide solution and extrac...


A rapid liquid chromatography determination of free formaldehyde in cod.

A rapid method for the determination of free formaldehyde in cod is described. It uses a simple water extraction of formaldehyde which is then derivatised with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form a sensitive and specific chromophore for HPLC detection. Although this formaldehyde derivative has been widely used in past tissue analysis, this paper describes an improved derivatisation procedure. The formation of the DNPH formaldehyde derivative has been shortened to 2 min and a stabilising buffer has be...

Friday 23rd November 1172

Migration of epoxidised soybean oil from PVC gaskets of commercial lids: simulation of migration under various conditions and screening of food products from Czech markets.

Previous studies have shown that a large number of polyvinylchloride (PVC) lid gaskets exceed the existing migration limits for epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) and correct prediction of ESBO release into food therefore appears to be a difficult issue. ESBO migration from PVC gaskets of metal closures into food simulants and food products from the Czech market is evaluated during a survey in 2009 and subsequently one in 2012 to assess progress in lid manufacturing and official testing conditions. ESBO migratio...

Monday 20th August 1172

Dietary intake of trace elements by the population of Catalonia (Spain): results from a total diet study.

This study aimed at analysing the concentrations of Al, Ba, Bi, Cu, Cr, Ge, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn in food samples collected in 2008 in Catalonia (Spain). The dietary intake of these 13 trace elements was subsequently estimated by different age-gender groups of the population: children, adolescents, adults, and seniors. In general terms, fish and shellfish, cereals, and pulses were the food groups showing the highest levels for most elements. Higher dietary intakes were associated to male groups (ado...

Tuesday 3rd July 1172

Dietary exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues of the Hong Kong adult population from a total diet study.

Dietary exposure of the Hong Kong adult population to organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was estimated using a total diet study (TDS) approach. OCPs listed under the Stockholm Convention as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT), endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), β-HCH, lindane, mirex, pentachlorobenzene and toxaphene, were studied. Out of 600 composite sampl...


Determination of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in bovine, swine and poultry liver using LC-MS/MS.

Antibacterials are widely used in veterinary medicine. Residues of these drugs can remain in food of animal origin, including bovine liver. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in bovine liver samples. Deuterated enrofloxacin, sulfapyridine and demeclocycline were used as internal standards. The homogenised liver samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile. Steps of non-solid-phase extraction ...


Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily i...


Isolation and full characterization of a potentially allergenic lipid transfer protein (LTP) protein in almond.

Non-specific Lipid Transfer Proteins (nsLTP) were shown to be among the most significant allergens, in particular in several fruit belonging to the Rosaceae family. The molecular features of LTPs, such as the presence of eight cysteine residues forming four disulfide bridges, confer a compact structure, decreasing the probability of degradation due to cooking or digestion, thereby increasing the chance of systemic absorption and severe allergic reactions. Few studies on LTP-induced allergies regarding almon...


Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BA were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and in craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat in a small size brewery, in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively fro...

Tuesday 24th February 1164

Photoinitiators: a food safety review.

UV printing inks are considered safer than the classical inks; however, despite being on the outer surface of the packaging material, their components can migrate into foodstuffs and can give rise to contamination. Photoinitiators are a part of the formulation of printing inks, being an important class of migrant, for which there have been more than 100 incidents of contamination of packaged food with photoinitiators reported through RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed) alerts in the EU. In this rev...

Thursday 29th February 1156

Determination of heavy metal ions in vegetable samples using a magnetic metal-organic framework nanocomposite sorbent.

This work describes the synthesis and application of a novel magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) [(Fe3O4-benzoyl isothiocyanate)/Cu3(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate)2] to pre-concentrate trace amounts of Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) ions and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A Box-Behnken design was used to find the parameters affecting the pre-concentration procedure through response surface methodology. Three factors including uptake time, amount of the magnetic sorbent, a...

Friday 28th July 1155

Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in soft drinks by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), have been pre-concentrated by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermally desorbed (SBSE-TD) before analysis by GC-MS. Several parameters affecting the derivatisation step and both SBSE extraction and thermal desorption were carefully optimised. When the analyses of BHA and TBHQ in their acetylated, silylated and underivatised forms were compared, the best results were obtai...

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