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PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

21:23 EDT 29th August 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 327 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a, was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOFMS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1) nuclear magnetic...

High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycot...

Development and Validation of Rapid Multiresidue and Multi-class Analysis for Antibiotics and Anthelmintics in Feed by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

A new multi-residue method for the analysis of veterinary drugs, namely amoxicillin, chlortetracycline, colistins A and B, doxycycline, fenbendazole, flubendazole, ivermectin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim was developed and validated for feed. After acidic extraction, the samples were centrifuged, purified by SPE, and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative validation was done in accorda...

Simultaneous determination of aditoprim and its three major metabolites in pigs, broilers, and carp tissues and its application in tissue distribution and depletion studies.

Aditoprim (ADP) is a recently developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that has shown promise for therapeutic use in veterinary medicine because of its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, a sensitive and reliable multi-residue chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method for the quantitative analysis of ADP and its three major metabolites was developed, and the tissue distribution and depletion profiles of ADP and its major metabolites in pigs, broilers, and carp were investigated. Edible...

HPLC-ESI-MS/MS ASSESSMENT OF THE TETRAHYDRO-METABOLITES OF CORTISOL AND CORTISONE IN BOVINE URINE: PROMISING MARKERS OF DEXAMETHASONE AND PREDNISOLONE TREATMENT.

The effects of long-term administration of low doses of dexamethasone (DX) and prednisolone (PL) on the metabolism of endogenous corticosteroids were investigated in veal calves. In addition to cortisol (F) and cortisone (E), whose interconversion is regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11βHSDs), special attention was paid to tetrahydrocortisol (THF), allo-tetrahydrocortisol (aTHF), tetrahydrocortisone (THE) and allo-tetrahydrocortisone (aTHE), that are produced from F and E by catalytic activi...

Occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk samples from twelve provinces in China.

The levels of twelve synthetic musks and one musk metabolite in twenty-four pooled human milk samples were examined in order to assess the health risks of these contaminants to breast-feeding infants of China. The 24 pooled samples comprised of 1237 individual human milk samples collected from 12 provinces of China according to the WHO guidelines. Among the 13 target analytes, OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylc...

Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid screening of sildenafil typed compounds as illegal additives in functional foods.

Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) for treatment of erectile dysfunction. Undeclared sildenafil and related analogues adulterated in functional foods are a threat to public health. To screen these illegal drugs rapidly in herbal samples, an immunochromatographic (IC) assay was developed based on polyclonal antibodies specific to both sildenafil and its analogues. A group which is pharmacological necessary for sildenafil and its analogues was employed as representative hapten for generatio...

Waste grape skins: evaluation of safety aspects for the production of functional powders and extracts for the food sector.

Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in ...

Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. The aim of this study was to determine selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S...

Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city of China.

Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥20 years old) in various age-gender sub-groups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups, using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary expos...

Investigation of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Lingshan Bay, Yellow Sea, China using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT).

Early detection of toxin contamination in shellfish (i.e. prior to harvest) would be of considerable advantage to fish farmers, researchers and food safety administrators. In 2004 a solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technique was developed and used to study algal toxins in New Zealand shellfish harvesting areas. In subsequent years, the basic idea has been further developed. Using a SPATT method, an investigation into diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) was conducted over a ten and a half month p...

Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

Mycotoxins are a chemically diverse group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and can occur in a wide range of commodities including human food and in animal feed. In order to cope with these mycotoxins, plants have the potential to modify the chemical structures as part of their defence mechanism. The resulting metabolic products are neither routinely screened at grain elevators nor regulated by proper legislations. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxyn...

In vitro experimental environments lacking or containing soil disparately affect competition experiments of Aspergillus flavus and co-occurring fungi in maize grains.

In vitro experimental environments are used to study interactions between microorganisms, and predict dynamics in natural ecosystems. This study highlights that experimental in vitro environments should be selected to closely match the natural environment of interest during in vitro studies to strengthen extrapolations about aflatoxin production by Aspergillus and competing organisms. Fungal competition and aflatoxin accumulation was studied in soil, cotton wool or tube (water-only) environments, for Asperg...

A method for the analysis of multiple novel halogenated flame retardants in cow's milk.

A method was developed for the extraction and analysis of cow's milk to determine the presence of 21 halogenated flame retardants (FRs), including individual isomers plus 8 methoxy-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the FRs analyzed, the majority were brominated, one (Dechlorane Plus [syn- and anti-]) was chlorinated and one had both bromine and chlorine substitution (hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane [HCDBCO]). Extraction was performed using homogenization with acetone: hexane (2:1 v/v)...

Effect of various storage conditions on the stability of quinolones in raw milk.

Research on the storage stability of antibiotic residues in milk is important for method development or validation, milk quality control and risk assessment during screening, confirmation, qualitative or quantitative analysis. This study was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS to determine the stability of six quinolones - ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF) and flumequine (FLU) - in raw milk stored under various conditions, to investigate if quinolones d...

Widespread occurrence of perchlorate in water, foodstuffs and human urine collected from Kuwait and its contribution to human exposure.

Perchlorate is a thyroid hormone-disrupting compound and is reported to occur widely in the environment. Little is known on human exposure to perchlorate in Kuwait. In this study, 218 water samples, 618 commonly consumed foodstuffs and 532 urine samples collected from Kuwait were analysed to assess the exposure of the Kuwaiti population to perchlorate. For the estimation of daily intake of perchlorate, food consumption rates were obtained from the National Nutrition Survey in the State of Kuwait (NNSSK). Th...

Development of harmonised food and sample lists for total diet studies in five European countries.

A total diet study (TDS) is a public health tool for determination of population dietary exposure to chemicals across the entire diet. TDSs have been performed in several countries but the comparability of data produced is limited. Harmonisation of the TDS methodology is therefore desirable and the development of comparable TDS food lists is considered essential to achieve the consistency between countries. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility of a method for establishing harmonised ...

Cross-reactivity features of deoxynivalenol (DON)-targeted immunoaffinity columns aiming to achieve simultaneous analysis of DON and major conjugates in cereal samples.

Immunoaffinity columns (IACs) are a well-established tool in the determination of regulated mycotoxins in food and feed commodities. However, they also have the potential to become attractive pre-concentration and clean-up materials for the determination of masked (also called modified) mycotoxins, which have been recognised as important contributors to the toxicological hazard deriving from fungal spoilage of goods. However, the information available in the literature concerning the cross-reactivity of DO...

Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on the sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vi...

Multiresidue Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Aflatoxin M1, Avermectins, Organophosphate Pesticides and Milbemycin in Milk by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

In this work we describe a method developed for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin M1, abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, acephate, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, diazinon, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, pirimiphos-ethyl and pirimiphos-methyl in whole raw milk, based on the QuEChERS method for extraction and clean-up, with detection and quantification by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated...

Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON) and acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (u...

Corrigendum.

Evaluation of extraction methods for ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans employing HPLC.

Cocoa is an important ingredient for the chocolate industry and for many food products. However, it is prone to contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA), which is highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. In this work, four different extraction methods were tested and compared based on their recoveries. The best protocol was established which involves an organic solvent-free extraction method for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans using 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) in water within 30 min. T...

Method development and survey of sudan I-IV in palm oil and chili spices in the Washington D.C. area.

Sudan I, II, III, and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States (US) and European Union (EU) because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chili spices and palm oil to visually enhance their red color. From 2003-2005, the EU made a series of decisions requiring chili spices and palm oil imported to the EU to contain analytical reports declaring them free of sudan I-IV. In order for the FDA to investigate the adulter...

Identification of print related contaminants in food packaging.

Since the UV ink photoinitiator isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) was discovered in packaged milk, studies of print contamination have focused primarily on photoinitiators (PIs) but have also included amine synergists. Many other substances are used or formed during the print process, yet their identity and set-off properties have yet to be catalogued in food packaging. Three different techniques: Direct Analysis in Real Time High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (DART-HRMS), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-...


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