PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

19:32 EST 29th January 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 213 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Thursday 29th February 1156

Determination of heavy metal ions in vegetable samples using a magnetic metal-organic framework nanocomposite sorbent.

This work describes the synthesis and application of a novel magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) [(Fe3O4-benzoyl isothiocyanate)/Cu3(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate)2] to pre-concentrate trace amounts of Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) ions and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A Box-Behnken design was used to find the parameters affecting the pre-concentration procedure through response surface methodology. Three factors including uptake time, amount of the magnetic sorbent, a...

Friday 28th July 1155

Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in soft drinks by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), have been pre-concentrated by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermally desorbed (SBSE-TD) before analysis by GC-MS. Several parameters affecting the derivatisation step and both SBSE extraction and thermal desorption were carefully optimised. When the analyses of BHA and TBHQ in their acetylated, silylated and underivatised forms were compared, the best results were obtai...


Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 till 5975 mg kg(-1) which is lower than expe...

Monday 26th November 1150

Physiological behaviour of gliotoxigenic Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolated from maize silage under simulated environmental conditions.

Environmental conditions play a key role in fungal development. During the silage production process, humidity, oxygen availability and pH vary among lactic-fermentation phases and among different silage sections. The aim of this work was to study the physiological behaviour of gliotoxicogenic Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from maize silage under simulated natural physicochemical conditions - different water activities (aW), temperatures (Tº), pH and oxygen pressure - on the growth parameters (gro...


Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turke...

Tuesday 15th June 1142

Deposition and depletion of maduramicin residues in eggs after oral administration to laying hens determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

The coccidiostat maduramicin has been approved as a feed additive for chickens and turkeys, although it is prohibited for use in laying hens. In the present study, laying hens were divided into three groups and fed for 14 days with medicated feed containing maduramicin, at three different concentrations: 50, 100 and 500 µg kg(-1). Eggs were collected during treatment and for 26 days after the end of feeding with medicated feed. Maduramicin residues were found exclusively in egg yolk, with the highest conce...

Friday 5th February 1142

Retrospective analysis for the identification of 4-aminocarminic acid photodegradation products in beverages.

This article deals with the identification of the photodegradation products of 4-aminocarminic acid potentially present in commercial beverages. Sixteen beverages of different composition but all containing the E120 dye were previously analysed by ultra-HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry to identify the common degradation products of the E120 dye. Since it is plausible to find unauthorised 4-aminocarminic acid in beverages which report generic E120 dye on the label, retrospective ...


Pyrazolopyrimidines in 'all-natural' products for erectile dysfunction treatment: the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-related impurities or by-products of different reaction steps in the synthesis of PDE5 analogues. As they were fo...


Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently PKC has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern for economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study ...

Sunday 31st December 1121

Magnetic Three-dimensional Graphene Solid-phase Extraction Of Chlorophenols From Honey Samples.

In this work, a novel magnetic three-dimensional graphene nano-composite (3D-G@Fe3O4) with a high surface area was synthesised by a vacuum freeze-dried method. Due to its high surface area, specific three-dimensional nano-porous structure and excellent magnetic properties, it can be used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. Some chlorophenols in honey samples were enriched by this nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Factors that affect the extraction eff...

Saturday 9th July 1120

Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the...

Tuesday 4th August 1113

Comparison of plasma and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynhus myccis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after single oral administration.

The aim of the study was to investigate the serum and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus caprio) after single oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the 3(rd) and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to ...

Monday 4th May 1113

Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and stability during cooking.

The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs (dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ)) was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24 h immersion (day 0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361-4189 and 0.28-6.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration ...


Quantitation of multiple mycotoxins and cyanogenic glucosides in cassava samples from Tanzania and Rwanda by an LC-MS/MS based multi-toxin method.

A multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for a mycotoxin survey in 627 samples of processed cassava collected from different districts across Tanzania and Rwanda after the method performance for this matrix had been determined. Matrix effects as well as extraction efficiencies were found to be similar to most other previously investigated matrices with the exception of distinct matrix effects in the negative ionization mode for early eluting compou...


Validation of a lateral flow test (MRLAFMQ) for detection of aflatoxin M1 at 50 ng l(-1) in raw commingled milk.

Aflatoxin M1 contamination in dairy products is a risk when feedstuff contaminated with aflatoxin B1 produced by molds is consumed by milk-producing animals. Milk can be screened for aflatoxin M1 at the EU maximum limit (ML) of 50 ng l(-1) by a lateral flow test, the MRLAFMQ (Aflatoxin M1) Test. The method takes 15 min with no milk dilution or a sample preparation step. The lateral flow assay was validated at ILVO-T&V according to EU guidelines using fortified raw milk samples. A detection capability of 50 ...


Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in beverages and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 water-soluble vitamins that are widely used as additives in beverages and dietary supplements. This combined method involves the following simple pre-treatment procedures: dietary supplement samples were prepared by centrifugation and filtration after an extraction step, whereas beverage samples were diluted prior to injection. Chromatographic analysis in this method utilized a multi-mode ODS column, which provided reverse-phase, anio...


Effect of ozone treatment on deoxynivalenol and quality evaluation of ozonized wheat.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the secondary metabolite of Fusarium graminearum which is always found in Fusarium head blight of wheat. In this study, gaseous ozone was used to treat both DON solution and scabbed wheat to investigate the effectiveness of ozone treatment on DON degradation and the effect of ozone on the quality parameters of wheat. It was found that gaseous ozone had a significant effect on DON reduction in solution, when 10 mg L(-1) gaseous ozone was used to treat a 1 μg mL(-1) of DON solution, t...

Saturday 7th October 1098

Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of...


Ameliorative effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G on zearalenone toxicosis in pre-pubertal female gilts.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) on the growing performance, genital organs, serum hormones and histopathological changes of pre-pubertal female gilts, and to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G in alleviating zearalenone toxicosis in gilts. Eighteen pre-pubertal female gilts were randomly allocated to three treatments with one replicate per treatment. The gilts were fed following three diets for 24 days: Control group was given a basic diet wi...


Migration by "direct" or "indirect" food contact? "Dry" and "wetting" foods? Experimental data for "touching" contact of dry foods with paper and board.

Food contact is characterised in various terms, all of which are somewhat ill-defined. This work investigated the simplification that migration from food contact materials into dry food virtually exclusively proceeds through the gas phase, which would imply that the migration of essentially non-volatile components were negligible. Here it is shown that this is not necessarily appropriate: for newspaper printed with an ink based on essentially non-volatile poly alpha olefins (PAO) as main solvent, the migrat...


Determination of radiostrontium in milk samples by ultra-low level liquid scintillation counting: a validated approach.

Strontium-90 is a hazardous radionuclide derived from nuclear fission processes, and it decays emitting high-energy beta particles forming Yttrium-90. It may be easily absorbed in humans through several food supply chains, since it is chemically similar to some important biological elements such as potassium and calcium. In this work an analytical method for the determination of radiostrontium in milk by liquid scintillation counting was developed in order to obtain a precise quantification at low activity ...


Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in-vitro and in-vivo models.

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue concentrations of OTA were analysed in the absence and presence of the test compounds, and the profile of OTA-derived metaboli...


Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and...


Effect of the bread making process on zearalenone levels.

In this research, the effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for ferm...

Wednesday 26th December 1082

Development of a quantitative GC-FID method for the determination of stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in foods.

Sodium and calcium salts of stearoyl-lactylates (SLs) are food emulsifiers especially used in bread and bakery products to improve the texture. They should be used at the lowest level at which the desired technological effect is achieved in a specific food category and at amounts not exceeding the maximal ones set by the Commission Regulation 1129/2011. In order to be able to evaluate whether these emulsifiers are used correctly but also to be able to evaluate whether the commercial additive formulations ar...

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