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PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

06:17 EDT 30th September 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 339 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Identification of the monobrominated derivative of Acid Red 52 (Food Red No. 106) in pickled vegetables.

Two unknown dyes (purple and purplish-red) were detected by TLC in two pickled vegetable (sakura-zuke daikon) samples containing Acid Red 52 (AR) and New Coccine as food colorants. HPLC with diode-array detection and LC/MS analyses suggested that the purple dye is monobrominated AR and the purplish-red dye is its N-desethyl derivative, which would be generated mainly during sample preparation. For the identification of the purple dye, a reference compound was prepared by bromination of AR followed by isolat...

High-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in puffer fish and shellfish.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an emerging toxin in the European marine environment. It has various known structural analogues. It acts as a sodium channel blocker; the ability of each analogue to bind to the sodium channel varies with the particular structure of each analogue. Thus, each analogue will vary in its toxic potential. TTX analogues co-occur in food samples at variable concentrations. An LC-MS method was developed for the identification and quantitation of several analogues of TTX using an LTQ-Orbitrap X...

Duplex real time PCR assay using SYBR Green detect and quantify Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) materials in meatballs, burgers, frankfurters and traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder.

The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species widely used in exotic foods and traditional medicines. Currently available polymerase chain reaction assays to identify MBT lack automation and involve long targets which break down in processed or denatured tissue. This SYBR Green duplex real time PCR assay has addressed this research gap for the first time through the combination of 120 and 141 bp targets from MBT and eukaryotes for the quantitative detection of ...

Migration of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films.

Three nanocopper/LDPE composite films were tested in food simulants (3% acetic acid and 10% ethanol) and real food matrices (rice vinegar, bottled water and Chinese liquor) to explore the behaviors of copper migration using ICP-OES and GFAAS. The effects of exposure time, temperature, nanocopper concentration and contact media on the release of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films were studied. It was shown that the migration of copper into 10% ethanol was much less than that into 3% acetic acid at t...

Probabilistic modelling to assess exposure to 3 artificial sweeteners of young Irish patients aged 1-3 years with PKU and CMPA.

The choice of suitable normal foods is limited for individuals with particular medical conditions e.g. inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria, PKU) or severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients may have dietary restrictions and exclusive or partial replacement of specific food groups with specially formulated products to meet particular nutrition requirements. Artificial sweeteners are used to improve the appearance and palatability of such food products to avoid food refusal and ensure dietar...

Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specime...

Evaluation of Efficacy, Acceptability and Palatability of Calcium montmorillonite Clay used to reduce aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure in a Crossover study in Kenya.

Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability; thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability, and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants ...

2- and 3-Monochloropropanediols in paper products and their transfer to foods.

The occurrence of 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (MCPDs) in selected paper products sold on the Canadian market and the transfer of 3-MCPD from those products to beverages was probed. Products included coffee filters, tea bags, disposable paper hot beverage cups and milk packaged in paperboard containers. The occurrence MCPDs in coffee and tea filters on the German market was investigated as well. Furthermore, the presence of MCPDs in paper towels on the German market was also investigated. Analytes were de...

Determination of flonicamid and its metabolites in bell pepper using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap).

The aim of this study is the development and validation of a method to determine flonicamid and its metabolites as TFNA (4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid), TFNG (N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine) and TFNA-AM (4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide) in bell pepper samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS). A fast and simple extraction procedure with acidified acetonitrile and salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) has been used. The ...

Occurrence of beauvericin and enniatins in wheat flour and corn grits on the Japanese market, and their co-contamination with type B trichothecene mycotoxins.

The contamination levels of beauvericin and four enniatins, enniatin A, A1, B and B1, in a total of 207 samples of wheat flour and corn grits on the Japanese market were determined by an analytical method based on LC-MS/MS. The toxins were extracted from samples with acetonitrile-water (85:15, vol/vol) and then purified with C18 cartridges. The method was validated in a single laboratory using spiked samples at two levels, and the recovery of the five toxins ranged from 91.1 to 113.8%. Enniatin B was freque...

Level of Natural Hepatotoxin (Indospicine) Contamination in Australian Camel Meat.

Camel meat production for human consumption and pet food manufacture accounts for a relatively small part of overall red meat production in Australia. Reliable statistical data for the Australian production and consumption of camel meat is not available; however, it is estimated that 300,000 feral camels roam within the desert of central Australia, with an annual usage of more than 3000 camels for human consumption, 2000 for pet food manufacture and a smaller number for live export. Despite a small Australi...

Optimisation and validation of a new analytical method for the determination of four natural and synthetic hormones using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

A rapid liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four natural and synthetic hormone residues (progesterone, testosterone, trenbolone acetate and zeranol) in animal tissue samples. Sample preparation was optimised to minimise time and solvent consumption. Meat samples were mechanically homogenised and digested in a procedure that gave similar recoveries to those enzymatically hydrolysed by Helix pomatia. Efficient extraction was achieved usin...

Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a, was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOFMS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1) nuclear magnetic...

High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycot...

Development and Validation of Rapid Multiresidue and Multi-class Analysis for Antibiotics and Anthelmintics in Feed by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

A new multi-residue method for the analysis of veterinary drugs, namely amoxicillin, chlortetracycline, colistins A and B, doxycycline, fenbendazole, flubendazole, ivermectin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim was developed and validated for feed. After acidic extraction, the samples were centrifuged, purified by SPE, and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative validation was done in accorda...

Simultaneous determination of aditoprim and its three major metabolites in pigs, broilers, and carp tissues and its application in tissue distribution and depletion studies.

Aditoprim (ADP) is a recently developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that has shown promise for therapeutic use in veterinary medicine because of its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, a sensitive and reliable multi-residue chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method for the quantitative analysis of ADP and its three major metabolites was developed, and the tissue distribution and depletion profiles of ADP and its major metabolites in pigs, broilers, and carp were investigated. Edible...

HPLC-ESI-MS/MS ASSESSMENT OF THE TETRAHYDRO-METABOLITES OF CORTISOL AND CORTISONE IN BOVINE URINE: PROMISING MARKERS OF DEXAMETHASONE AND PREDNISOLONE TREATMENT.

The effects of long-term administration of low doses of dexamethasone (DX) and prednisolone (PL) on the metabolism of endogenous corticosteroids were investigated in veal calves. In addition to cortisol (F) and cortisone (E), whose interconversion is regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11βHSDs), special attention was paid to tetrahydrocortisol (THF), allo-tetrahydrocortisol (aTHF), tetrahydrocortisone (THE) and allo-tetrahydrocortisone (aTHE), that are produced from F and E by catalytic activi...

Occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk samples from twelve provinces in China.

The levels of twelve synthetic musks and one musk metabolite in twenty-four pooled human milk samples were examined in order to assess the health risks of these contaminants to breast-feeding infants of China. The 24 pooled samples comprised of 1237 individual human milk samples collected from 12 provinces of China according to the WHO guidelines. Among the 13 target analytes, OTNE ([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl]ethan-1-one), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylc...

Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid screening of sildenafil typed compounds as illegal additives in functional foods.

Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) for treatment of erectile dysfunction. Undeclared sildenafil and related analogues adulterated in functional foods are a threat to public health. To screen these illegal drugs rapidly in herbal samples, an immunochromatographic (IC) assay was developed based on polyclonal antibodies specific to both sildenafil and its analogues. A group which is pharmacological necessary for sildenafil and its analogues was employed as representative hapten for generatio...

Waste grape skins: evaluation of safety aspects for the production of functional powders and extracts for the food sector.

Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in ...

Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. The aim of this study was to determine selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S...

Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city of China.

Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥20 years old) in various age-gender sub-groups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups, using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary expos...

Investigation of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Lingshan Bay, Yellow Sea, China using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT).

Early detection of toxin contamination in shellfish (i.e. prior to harvest) would be of considerable advantage to fish farmers, researchers and food safety administrators. In 2004 a solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technique was developed and used to study algal toxins in New Zealand shellfish harvesting areas. In subsequent years, the basic idea has been further developed. Using a SPATT method, an investigation into diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) was conducted over a ten and a half month p...

Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

Mycotoxins are a chemically diverse group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and can occur in a wide range of commodities including human food and in animal feed. In order to cope with these mycotoxins, plants have the potential to modify the chemical structures as part of their defence mechanism. The resulting metabolic products are neither routinely screened at grain elevators nor regulated by proper legislations. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxyn...

In vitro experimental environments lacking or containing soil disparately affect competition experiments of Aspergillus flavus and co-occurring fungi in maize grains.

In vitro experimental environments are used to study interactions between microorganisms, and predict dynamics in natural ecosystems. This study highlights that experimental in vitro environments should be selected to closely match the natural environment of interest during in vitro studies to strengthen extrapolations about aflatoxin production by Aspergillus and competing organisms. Fungal competition and aflatoxin accumulation was studied in soil, cotton wool or tube (water-only) environments, for Asperg...


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