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PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

18:46 EDT 29th May 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 368 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Quantitative analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

A simple and reliable multiresidue method for quantitative determination of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was developed. Critical MS parameters such as capillary voltage, cone voltage, collision energy, desolvation gas temperature, and extraction mass window were carefully optimised to obtain the best possible sensitivity. Analytical samples were prepared using extraction with acetonitrile and hexane in the pre...

Quantification of Mycotoxins in Vegetable Oil by UPLC-MS/MS after Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction.

Detection of mycotoxin contamination in foodstuffs is highly significant for public health. Herein we report an analytical method based on magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and UPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins, including fumonisins B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in vegetable oil. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with double layers of silicon dioxide were synthesized and found to be an effective MSPE adsorbent for mycotoxins. The proposed MSPE procedure serves not...

Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by GC-MS/MS.

Bisphenol A (BPA; 4-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]phenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with a weak estrogenic activity is used in a variety of consumer products, including food contact materials made of paper and cardboard products. Due to restrictions for the use of BPA because of its potential health risks, BPA is gradually being replaced by other bisphenols, as no limitations exist for these substances. The present study presents a method for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bispheno...

Chemical composition of rosehips from different Rosa species: an alternative source of antioxidants for food industry.

It is important to explore new sources of natural additives because the demand for these compounds by consumers is increasing. These products also provide health benefits and help in food preservation. An unexplored source of nutrients and antioxidant compounds is rosehip, the fleshy fruit of roses. This work compares antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, neutral phenols and acidic phenols) content of four Rosa species rosehips: R. pouzinii, R. corymbifera, R. glauca and R. canina coming from different geograph...

Elimination of dioxins in milk by dairy cows after the long-term intake of contaminated sugar beet pellets.

Dried feed materials, such as sugar beet pellets, may be a source of high levels of PCDD/Fs. The studies followed up dioxin congener elimination from contaminated milk (5.02 ± 1.39 pg WHO PCDD/F-PCBs-TEQ g(-1) fat) up to 338 days after withdrawal of polluted feed ingredient (4.37 ± 0.25 ng PCDD/F/DL-PCBs-TEQ kg(-1) feed). The main objectives of the study were to estimate the length of the time needed to achieve an acceptable PCDD/F milk level as set by European Union law, to track the fate of the PCD...

Understanding the Contamination of Food with Mineral Oil : the need for a Confirmatory Analytical and Procedural Approach.

The contamination of food by mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) found in packaging is a long running concern. A main source of MOH in foods is the migration of mineral oil from recycled board into the packed food products. Consequently, the majority of food manufacturers have taken protective measures, for example by using virgin board instead of recycled fibers, and where feasible, introducing functional barriers to mitigate migration. Despite these protective measures, MOH may still be observed at low amounts...

Dietary exposures for the safety assessment of seven emulsifiers commonly added to foods in the United States and implications for safety.

Dietary exposure assessment using food consumption data and ingredient use level is essential for assessing safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared to safe intake levels, such as Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect-level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due t...

Origin of disinfection by-products in cheeses.

The disinfection of water, equipment and surfaces in the cheese factory is one of the factors that can originate disinfection by-products (DBPs) in cheeses. This research has focused on studying cheese factories in order to evaluate the individual contribution of each step of the cheese-making process that can contribute to the presence of DBPs in cheeses. Ten factories were selected according to their salting processes (brine salting or dry salting). Each factory was monitored by the collection of six repr...

Mineral composition and toxic element levels of muscle, liver and kidney of intensive (Swedish Landrace) and extensive (Mangulica) pigs from Serbia.

Mineral composition (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, Na, K, Mg, Ca) and toxic element levels (Cd, Pb, Hg, As) of soil, feed and tissue (muscle, liver and kidney) from intensive (Swedish Landrace, housed indoors, fed a known diet, 4 years) and extensive (Mangulica, free-roaming, non-specified diet, 7-8 months) pigs was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Controlled nutrition produced pigs with higher concentrations of most minerals (muscle: Mn, Se, K, Mg; liver: Zn, Cu, Mn, S...

Molecular dynamics simulation of three plastic additives diffusion in polyethylene terephthalate.

Accurate diffusion coefficient data of additives in polymer is of paramount importance for estimating the migration of the additives over time. In this article it is shown how this diffusion coefficient can be estimated for three plastic additives [2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl) (UV-P), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. MD simulations were performed at temperatures of 293-43...

Statistical analysis of corn consumption for improved mycotoxin exposure estimates for the population of Veracruz City.

Corn consumption was evaluated in the population of Veracruz City through two different dietary intake questionnaires. The selection of 300 sampling locations was completely random. The population was segregated into gender and age categories. A daily consumption questionnaire was used to determine the consumption of corn tortillas and a frequency questionnaire to determine the consumption of other corn products. A book of photographs was used to adjust criteria on the size of the portions of corn products ...

Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (...

Development and validation of a SPME-GC method for degradation kinetics study of propiconazole I, propiconazole II and tebuconazole in blueberries in Concordia, the main production area of Argentina.

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of propiconazole isomers and tebuconazole residues in blueberries was developed, using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography. Confirmation was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected-ion monitoring mode. The SPME fiber coating selected was CWX-DVB, and the pH was adjusted to 7 with NaOH. The method is selective with adequate precision and high accuracy and sensitivity. Recoveries ranged between 97.4 and ...

Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in selected feed materials with gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are known to be toxic to many animals and humans. To provide safety of feeds a method based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry enabling determination of a content of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in feed materials was developed. After extraction with aqueous solution of HCl and purification of the extract, 1,2-unsaturated alkaloids are reduced to their common backbone structures and subsequently derivatized with HFBA. The method was validated according to SANTE/11945/2015. All ...

Laboratory validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of ractopamine, clenbuterol and salbutamol in bovine and swine muscle at sub-μg/kg regulatory limits.

Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC, in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and Salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the mea...

Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain.

Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, ...

Veterinary drugs residues: a review of the latest analytical research on sample preparation and LC-MS based methods.

The world population is increasing day by day and as a result there is a growing demand for food. Inevitably livestock and crops become intensive and require an increasing use of adjuvants. Even the logic of the extreme profit acts as an engine and often leads to fraudulent use of drugs, pesticides etc. Particularly, veterinary drugs can pose a real risk to human health if their residues are allowed to enter the food chain. Parent drugs and their metabolites can occur in foodstuffs individually or as multic...

Investigation of the role of environmental contamination in the occurrence of residues of the veterinary drug phenylbutazone in cattle.

Phenylbutazone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug licensed for use in horses to treat musculoskeletal disorders. It is not permitted in the European Union for use in animals destined for the food chain. Official statistics provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) show that 0.18% of bovines tested in the European Union between 2008 and 2014 for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were non-compliant, with phenylbutazone representing over 28% of these. Anecdotal evidence suggests animals ...

Determination and confirmation of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors in bovine and porcine urine using UHPLC-MS/MS.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors are prohibited in human sports doping. However, they also present a risk of being used illegally in animal husbandry for fattening purposes. A method was developed and validated using UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination and confirmation of SERMs, anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibiters in bovine and porcine urine. This method was used in a survey of more than 200 bovine and porcine urine samples from Dutch farms. In 18 out...

Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulph...

Yet another angle, but residues nonetheless: 26 years of EuroResidue Conferences!

Isolation and identification of a novel sildenafil analogue adulterant in herbal products.

A novel sildenafil analogue found in herbal products by a routine drug-adulteration screening programme was isolated by column chromatography. On the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectral analysis, the structure of a new compound YJ-07 was established as 1-[4-ethoxy-3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl) benzenesulfonamide. It common name is aminosildenafil.

Risk assessment of dietary exposure to tryptamine for the Austrian population.

Tryptamine acts as a neuromodulator and vasoactive agent in the human body. Dose-response data on dietary tryptamine are scarce and neither a toxicological threshold value nor tolerable levels in foods have been established so far. This paper reviews dose-response characteristics and toxicological effects of tryptamine as well as tryptamine contents in food, estimates dietary exposure of Austrian consumers, and calculates risk-based maximum tolerable limits for food categories. A dose without effect of 8 m...

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for quinocetone in pigs and extrapolation to mequindox.

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are scientific methods used to predict veterinary drug residues that may occur in food-producing animals, and which have powerful extrapolation ability. Quinocetone (QCT) and mequindox (MEQ) are widely used in China for the prevention of bacterial infections and promoting animal growth, but their abuse causes a potential threat to human health. In this study, a flow-limited PBPK model was developed to simulate simultaneously residue depletion of QCT and it...

(137)Caesium in samples of wild-grown Boletus edulis Bull. from Lucca province (Tuscany, Italy) and other Italian and European geographical areas.

Samples of the edible mushroom Boletus edulis Bull. were studied to assess the risk for human health related to their content of the artificial radionuclide (137)Cs. Fresh B. edulis carpophores were collected in four undeveloped microhabitats of Lucca province (Tuscany, North-Central Italy). Dried non-cultivated samples coming from this same district and 11 other Italian provinces or European countries were instead purchased fromcommercial sources. Contents of (137)Cs, reported as Bq kg(‒1) dry weight (dw...


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