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PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

05:18 EST 24th February 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 351 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Investigation of the role of environmental contamination in the occurrence of residues of the veterinary drug phenylbutazone in cattle.

Phenylbutazone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug licensed for use in horses to treat musculoskeletal disorders. It is not permitted in the European Union for use in animals destined for the food chain. Official statistics provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) show that 0.18% of bovines tested in the European Union between 2008 and 2014 for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were non-compliant, with phenylbutazone representing over 28% of these. Anecdotal evidence suggests animals ...

Determination and confirmation of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors in bovine and porcine urine using UHPLC-MS/MS.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors are prohibited in human sports doping. However, they also present a risk of being used illegally in animal husbandry for fattening purposes. A method was developed and validated using UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination and confirmation of SERMs, anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibiters in bovine and porcine urine. This method was used in a survey of more than 200 bovine and porcine urine samples from Dutch farms. In 18 out...

Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulph...

Yet another angle, but residues nonetheless: 26 years of EuroResidue Conferences!

Isolation and identification of a novel sildenafil analogue adulterant in herbal products.

A novel sildenafil analogue found in herbal products by a routine drug-adulteration screening programme was isolated by column chromatography. On the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectral analysis, the structure of a new compound YJ-07 was established as 1-[4-ethoxy-3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl) benzenesulfonamide. It common name is aminosildenafil.

Risk assessment of dietary exposure to tryptamine for the Austrian population.

Tryptamine acts as a neuromodulator and vasoactive agent in the human body. Dose-response data on dietary tryptamine are scarce and neither a toxicological threshold value nor tolerable levels in foods have been established so far. This paper reviews dose-response characteristics and toxicological effects of tryptamine as well as tryptamine contents in food, estimates dietary exposure of Austrian consumers, and calculates risk-based maximum tolerable limits for food categories. A dose without effect of 8 m...

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for quinocetone in pigs and extrapolation to mequindox.

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are scientific methods used to predict veterinary drug residues that may occur in food-producing animals, and which have powerful extrapolation ability. Quinocetone (QCT) and mequindox (MEQ) are widely used in China for the prevention of bacterial infections and promoting animal growth, but their abuse causes a potential threat to human health. In this study, a flow-limited PBPK model was developed to simulate simultaneously residue depletion of QCT and it...

(137)Caesium in samples of wild-grown Boletus edulis Bull. from Lucca province (Tuscany, Italy) and other Italian and European geographical areas.

Samples of the edible mushroom Boletus edulis Bull. were studied to assess the risk for human health related to their content of the artificial radionuclide (137)Cs. Fresh B. edulis carpophores were collected in four undeveloped microhabitats of Lucca province (Tuscany, North-Central Italy). Dried non-cultivated samples coming from this same district and 11 other Italian provinces or European countries were instead purchased fromcommercial sources. Contents of (137)Cs, reported as Bq kg(‒1) dry weight (dw...

Simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline, ampicillin and sarafloxacin in milk using capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection.

A fast, inexpensive, and sensitive approach for the simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline, ampicilline, and sarafloxacin in milk was developed using capillary electrophoresis coupled with an electrochemiluminescence detector. Under the optimal detection conditions, the linear ranges for chlortetracyline, ampicilline, and sarafloxacin were 0.030-5.0, 0.050-5.0, and 0.0040-2.0 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients of chlortetracycline, ampicilline, and sarafloxacin were determined as 0....

Exposure of Polish children to Southampton food colours.

A study published in 2007 showed that the intake of six food colours (the so-called "Southampton colours") may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children. The present study set out to assess the exposure of Polish children (3-and 8/9-years-old, n= 149) to six of the target colours. Two methods were used to evaluate colour consumption by children: Scenario 1) using the maximum permitted levels (MPLs) and actual food consumption data; Scenario 2) using the actual levels in food and actual fo...

Migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene containers and discrimination of these two kinds of polystyrene by principal component analysis.

The migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) containers into isooctane was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EPS containers were in two-sided contact with isooctane at temperatures of 25 and 40(o)C. It was shown that recycled EPS gave greater migration ratios compared with virgin EPS, which indicated that styrene and ethylbenzene migrated more easily from recycled EPS. In addition, an analytical method to distinguish between vir...

Role of grapevine vegetative expression on Aspergillus spp. incidence and OTA accumulation in wines produced in a temperate humid climate.

Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. are the main producers of ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin responsible for fatal human diseases. Some Authorities have established a maximum of 2 μg/L of OTA in wine (EC.N°123, 2005). Although the incidence and occurrence of OTA in grapes and wine is highly related to climate conditions as has been extensively documented, there is not conclusive information on the effects of cultivation systems on the presence of OTA. This study focused on determining the effect of the...

Identification of the monobrominated derivative of Acid Red 52 (Food Red No. 106) in pickled vegetables.

Two unknown dyes (purple and purplish-red) were detected by TLC in two pickled vegetable (sakura-zuke daikon) samples containing Acid Red 52 (AR) and New Coccine as food colorants. HPLC with diode-array detection and LC/MS analyses suggested that the purple dye is monobrominated AR and the purplish-red dye is its N-desethyl derivative, which would be generated mainly during sample preparation. For the identification of the purple dye, a reference compound was prepared by bromination of AR followed by isolat...

High-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in puffer fish and shellfish.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an emerging toxin in the European marine environment. It has various known structural analogues. It acts as a sodium channel blocker; the ability of each analogue to bind to the sodium channel varies with the particular structure of each analogue. Thus, each analogue will vary in its toxic potential. TTX analogues co-occur in food samples at variable concentrations. An LC-MS method was developed for the identification and quantitation of several analogues of TTX using an LTQ-Orbitrap X...

Duplex real time PCR assay using SYBR Green detect and quantify Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) materials in meatballs, burgers, frankfurters and traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder.

The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species widely used in exotic foods and traditional medicines. Currently available polymerase chain reaction assays to identify MBT lack automation and involve long targets which break down in processed or denatured tissue. This SYBR Green duplex real time PCR assay has addressed this research gap for the first time through the combination of 120 and 141 bp targets from MBT and eukaryotes for the quantitative detection of ...

Migration of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films.

Three nanocopper/LDPE composite films were tested in food simulants (3% acetic acid and 10% ethanol) and real food matrices (rice vinegar, bottled water and Chinese liquor) to explore the behaviors of copper migration using ICP-OES and GFAAS. The effects of exposure time, temperature, nanocopper concentration and contact media on the release of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films were studied. It was shown that the migration of copper into 10% ethanol was much less than that into 3% acetic acid at t...

Probabilistic modelling to assess exposure to 3 artificial sweeteners of young Irish patients aged 1-3 years with PKU and CMPA.

The choice of suitable normal foods is limited for individuals with particular medical conditions e.g. inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria, PKU) or severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients may have dietary restrictions and exclusive or partial replacement of specific food groups with specially formulated products to meet particular nutrition requirements. Artificial sweeteners are used to improve the appearance and palatability of such food products to avoid food refusal and ensure dietar...

Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specime...

Evaluation of Efficacy, Acceptability and Palatability of Calcium montmorillonite Clay used to reduce aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure in a Crossover study in Kenya.

Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability; thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability, and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants ...

2- and 3-Monochloropropanediols in paper products and their transfer to foods.

The occurrence of 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (MCPDs) in selected paper products sold on the Canadian market and the transfer of 3-MCPD from those products to beverages was probed. Products included coffee filters, tea bags, disposable paper hot beverage cups and milk packaged in paperboard containers. The occurrence MCPDs in coffee and tea filters on the German market was investigated as well. Furthermore, the presence of MCPDs in paper towels on the German market was also investigated. Analytes were de...

Determination of flonicamid and its metabolites in bell pepper using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap).

The aim of this study is the development and validation of a method to determine flonicamid and its metabolites as TFNA (4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid), TFNG (N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine) and TFNA-AM (4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide) in bell pepper samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS). A fast and simple extraction procedure with acidified acetonitrile and salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) has been used. The ...

Occurrence of beauvericin and enniatins in wheat flour and corn grits on the Japanese market, and their co-contamination with type B trichothecene mycotoxins.

The contamination levels of beauvericin and four enniatins, enniatin A, A1, B and B1, in a total of 207 samples of wheat flour and corn grits on the Japanese market were determined by an analytical method based on LC-MS/MS. The toxins were extracted from samples with acetonitrile-water (85:15, vol/vol) and then purified with C18 cartridges. The method was validated in a single laboratory using spiked samples at two levels, and the recovery of the five toxins ranged from 91.1 to 113.8%. Enniatin B was freque...

Level of Natural Hepatotoxin (Indospicine) Contamination in Australian Camel Meat.

Camel meat production for human consumption and pet food manufacture accounts for a relatively small part of overall red meat production in Australia. Reliable statistical data for the Australian production and consumption of camel meat is not available; however, it is estimated that 300,000 feral camels roam within the desert of central Australia, with an annual usage of more than 3000 camels for human consumption, 2000 for pet food manufacture and a smaller number for live export. Despite a small Australi...

Optimisation and validation of a new analytical method for the determination of four natural and synthetic hormones using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

A rapid liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four natural and synthetic hormone residues (progesterone, testosterone, trenbolone acetate and zeranol) in animal tissue samples. Sample preparation was optimised to minimise time and solvent consumption. Meat samples were mechanically homogenised and digested in a procedure that gave similar recoveries to those enzymatically hydrolysed by Helix pomatia. Efficient extraction was achieved usin...

Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a, was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOFMS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1) nuclear magnetic...


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