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PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

06:17 EDT 24th March 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 358 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Statistical analysis of corn consumption for improved mycotoxin exposure estimates for the population of Veracruz City.

Corn consumption was evaluated in the population of Veracruz City through two different dietary intake questionnaires. The selection of 300 sampling locations was completely random. The population was segregated into gender and age categories. A daily consumption questionnaire was used to determine the consumption of corn tortillas and a frequency questionnaire to determine the consumption of other corn products. A book of photographs was used to adjust criteria on the size of the portions of corn products ...

Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (...

Development and validation of a SPME-GC method for degradation kinetics study of propiconazole I, propiconazole II and tebuconazole in blueberries in Concordia, the main production area of Argentina.

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of propiconazole isomers and tebuconazole residues in blueberries was developed, using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography. Confirmation was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected-ion monitoring mode. The SPME fiber coating selected was CWX-DVB, and the pH was adjusted to 7 with NaOH. The method is selective with adequate precision and high accuracy and sensitivity. Recoveries ranged between 97.4 and ...

Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in selected feed materials with gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are known to be toxic to many animals and humans. To provide safety of feeds a method based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry enabling determination of a content of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in feed materials was developed. After extraction with aqueous solution of HCl and purification of the extract, 1,2-unsaturated alkaloids are reduced to their common backbone structures and subsequently derivatized with HFBA. The method was validated according to SANTE/11945/2015. All ...

Laboratory validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of ractopamine, clenbuterol and salbutamol in bovine and swine muscle at sub-μg/kg regulatory limits.

Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC, in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and Salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the mea...

Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain.

Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, ...

Veterinary drugs residues: a review of the latest analytical research on sample preparation and LC-MS based methods.

The world population is increasing day by day and as a result there is a growing demand for food. Inevitably livestock and crops become intensive and require an increasing use of adjuvants. Even the logic of the extreme profit acts as an engine and often leads to fraudulent use of drugs, pesticides etc. Particularly, veterinary drugs can pose a real risk to human health if their residues are allowed to enter the food chain. Parent drugs and their metabolites can occur in foodstuffs individually or as multic...

Investigation of the role of environmental contamination in the occurrence of residues of the veterinary drug phenylbutazone in cattle.

Phenylbutazone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug licensed for use in horses to treat musculoskeletal disorders. It is not permitted in the European Union for use in animals destined for the food chain. Official statistics provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) show that 0.18% of bovines tested in the European Union between 2008 and 2014 for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were non-compliant, with phenylbutazone representing over 28% of these. Anecdotal evidence suggests animals ...

Determination and confirmation of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors in bovine and porcine urine using UHPLC-MS/MS.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors are prohibited in human sports doping. However, they also present a risk of being used illegally in animal husbandry for fattening purposes. A method was developed and validated using UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination and confirmation of SERMs, anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibiters in bovine and porcine urine. This method was used in a survey of more than 200 bovine and porcine urine samples from Dutch farms. In 18 out...

Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulph...

Yet another angle, but residues nonetheless: 26 years of EuroResidue Conferences!

Isolation and identification of a novel sildenafil analogue adulterant in herbal products.

A novel sildenafil analogue found in herbal products by a routine drug-adulteration screening programme was isolated by column chromatography. On the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectral analysis, the structure of a new compound YJ-07 was established as 1-[4-ethoxy-3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl) benzenesulfonamide. It common name is aminosildenafil.

Risk assessment of dietary exposure to tryptamine for the Austrian population.

Tryptamine acts as a neuromodulator and vasoactive agent in the human body. Dose-response data on dietary tryptamine are scarce and neither a toxicological threshold value nor tolerable levels in foods have been established so far. This paper reviews dose-response characteristics and toxicological effects of tryptamine as well as tryptamine contents in food, estimates dietary exposure of Austrian consumers, and calculates risk-based maximum tolerable limits for food categories. A dose without effect of 8 m...

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for quinocetone in pigs and extrapolation to mequindox.

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are scientific methods used to predict veterinary drug residues that may occur in food-producing animals, and which have powerful extrapolation ability. Quinocetone (QCT) and mequindox (MEQ) are widely used in China for the prevention of bacterial infections and promoting animal growth, but their abuse causes a potential threat to human health. In this study, a flow-limited PBPK model was developed to simulate simultaneously residue depletion of QCT and it...

(137)Caesium in samples of wild-grown Boletus edulis Bull. from Lucca province (Tuscany, Italy) and other Italian and European geographical areas.

Samples of the edible mushroom Boletus edulis Bull. were studied to assess the risk for human health related to their content of the artificial radionuclide (137)Cs. Fresh B. edulis carpophores were collected in four undeveloped microhabitats of Lucca province (Tuscany, North-Central Italy). Dried non-cultivated samples coming from this same district and 11 other Italian provinces or European countries were instead purchased fromcommercial sources. Contents of (137)Cs, reported as Bq kg(‒1) dry weight (dw...

Simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline, ampicillin and sarafloxacin in milk using capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection.

A fast, inexpensive, and sensitive approach for the simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline, ampicilline, and sarafloxacin in milk was developed using capillary electrophoresis coupled with an electrochemiluminescence detector. Under the optimal detection conditions, the linear ranges for chlortetracyline, ampicilline, and sarafloxacin were 0.030-5.0, 0.050-5.0, and 0.0040-2.0 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients of chlortetracycline, ampicilline, and sarafloxacin were determined as 0....

Exposure of Polish children to Southampton food colours.

A study published in 2007 showed that the intake of six food colours (the so-called "Southampton colours") may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children. The present study set out to assess the exposure of Polish children (3-and 8/9-years-old, n= 149) to six of the target colours. Two methods were used to evaluate colour consumption by children: Scenario 1) using the maximum permitted levels (MPLs) and actual food consumption data; Scenario 2) using the actual levels in food and actual fo...

Migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene containers and discrimination of these two kinds of polystyrene by principal component analysis.

The migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) containers into isooctane was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EPS containers were in two-sided contact with isooctane at temperatures of 25 and 40(o)C. It was shown that recycled EPS gave greater migration ratios compared with virgin EPS, which indicated that styrene and ethylbenzene migrated more easily from recycled EPS. In addition, an analytical method to distinguish between vir...

Role of grapevine vegetative expression on Aspergillus spp. incidence and OTA accumulation in wines produced in a temperate humid climate.

Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. are the main producers of ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin responsible for fatal human diseases. Some Authorities have established a maximum of 2 μg/L of OTA in wine (EC.N°123, 2005). Although the incidence and occurrence of OTA in grapes and wine is highly related to climate conditions as has been extensively documented, there is not conclusive information on the effects of cultivation systems on the presence of OTA. This study focused on determining the effect of the...

Identification of the monobrominated derivative of Acid Red 52 (Food Red No. 106) in pickled vegetables.

Two unknown dyes (purple and purplish-red) were detected by TLC in two pickled vegetable (sakura-zuke daikon) samples containing Acid Red 52 (AR) and New Coccine as food colorants. HPLC with diode-array detection and LC/MS analyses suggested that the purple dye is monobrominated AR and the purplish-red dye is its N-desethyl derivative, which would be generated mainly during sample preparation. For the identification of the purple dye, a reference compound was prepared by bromination of AR followed by isolat...

High-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in puffer fish and shellfish.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an emerging toxin in the European marine environment. It has various known structural analogues. It acts as a sodium channel blocker; the ability of each analogue to bind to the sodium channel varies with the particular structure of each analogue. Thus, each analogue will vary in its toxic potential. TTX analogues co-occur in food samples at variable concentrations. An LC-MS method was developed for the identification and quantitation of several analogues of TTX using an LTQ-Orbitrap X...

Duplex real time PCR assay using SYBR Green detect and quantify Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) materials in meatballs, burgers, frankfurters and traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder.

The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species widely used in exotic foods and traditional medicines. Currently available polymerase chain reaction assays to identify MBT lack automation and involve long targets which break down in processed or denatured tissue. This SYBR Green duplex real time PCR assay has addressed this research gap for the first time through the combination of 120 and 141 bp targets from MBT and eukaryotes for the quantitative detection of ...

Migration of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films.

Three nanocopper/LDPE composite films were tested in food simulants (3% acetic acid and 10% ethanol) and real food matrices (rice vinegar, bottled water and Chinese liquor) to explore the behaviors of copper migration using ICP-OES and GFAAS. The effects of exposure time, temperature, nanocopper concentration and contact media on the release of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films were studied. It was shown that the migration of copper into 10% ethanol was much less than that into 3% acetic acid at t...

Probabilistic modelling to assess exposure to 3 artificial sweeteners of young Irish patients aged 1-3 years with PKU and CMPA.

The choice of suitable normal foods is limited for individuals with particular medical conditions e.g. inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria, PKU) or severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients may have dietary restrictions and exclusive or partial replacement of specific food groups with specially formulated products to meet particular nutrition requirements. Artificial sweeteners are used to improve the appearance and palatability of such food products to avoid food refusal and ensure dietar...

Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specime...


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