PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 261 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Monday 3rd April 1284

Modified halloysite nanotubes and the alleviation of kidney damage induced by dietary zearalenone in swine.

The aims of this study were, first, to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEN) through the analysis of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, pathological changes and inflammatory response in the kidney of gestation sows and offspring; and, second, to evaluate the efficacy of modified halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs) for the alleviation to the adverse effects induced by ZEN. This study focused on the period of organogenesis between days 35 and 70 of gestation, and treatments included (1) a control diet...


Semicarbazide may be generated from natural azine development in foods, followed by reaction with urea compounds.

This paper proposes a mechanism to explain the trace levels of natural semicarbazide occasionally observed in foods. The analytical derivative of semicarbazide, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde semicarbazone, is often measured as a metabolite marker to detect the widely banned antibiotic nitrofurazone. However, this marker is not specific as semicarbazide may be present in foods for several reasons other than exposure to nitrofurazone. In some cases, an entirely natural origin of semicarbazide is suspected although up u...


Simplified multi-element analysis of ground and instant coffees by ICP OES and FAAS.

A simplified alternative to the wet digestion sample preparation procedure for roasted ground and instant coffees has been developed and validated for the determination of different elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na). The proposed procedure, i.e., the ultrasound-assisted solubilisation in aqua regia, is quite fast and simple, requires minimal use of reagents and demonst...

Monday 22nd December 1281

High-throughput determination of citrinin in rice by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FL).

A rapid, simple and effective method for the determination of citrinin in rice by UHPLC coupled to fluorescence detection has been developed and validated. Extraction of citrinin from rice samples was achieved by applying a QuEChERS-based extraction/partitioning process with water and acetonitrile, without the need of further extract clean-up. The method was fully validated for white rice, and its applicability in other rice matrices, such as brown and red rice, was confirmed by recovery experiments. Under ...

Monday 20th October 1281

Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background int...

Sunday 5th December 1266

Detection by coupled LC-photodiode array detection and high-resolution Orbitrap MS of dimethyl and diethyl yellow dyes used illegally in processed soymilk curd.

An efficient non-target dye-screening system consisting of a liquid chromatography photodiode array coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) is described. Visible absorption spectroscopy assisted in locating the peak of an unknown dye in HRMS chromatograms which allowed the accurate molecular weight of the unknown to be obtained. In a study of the adulteration of processed soymilk curd (tofu) with dimethyl yellow, an unexpected unknown dye was discovered. The compound was further purified by ...

Monday 11th January 1266

Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed materials in the Netherlands in the period 2001-2011.

This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Monitoring results from the period 2001-2011, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the EU for either dioxins or the sum of dio...


Assessment of mercury and cadmium via seafood consumption in Italy: estimated dietary intake (EWI) and target hazard quotient (THQ).

Hg and Cd were quantified in fish, cephalopods and crustaceans from Italian supermarkets. Sample compliance with European dietary standards as well as human health risks according to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake and the methodology of Target Hazard Quotient were evaluated. Both element levels were under European legal limits, except for some fish having Hg and Cd contents exceeding or equal to critical values. Estimated weekly intakes (Hg: fish = 0.07-1.44 µg kg(-1) bw/week; cephalopods = 0.05...


Migration of Tinuvin P and Irganox 3114 into milk and the corresponding authorised food simulant.

Migration of Tinuvin P (UV stabilizer) and Irganox 3114 (antioxidant) from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied. HDPE pieces were soaked in either milk (1.5% or 3.5% fat content) or 50% (v/v) ethanol - water mixture - the food simulant for milk as specified in regulation 10/2011/EC. The obtained extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. For statistical assessment variography was used. It proved to be a useful tool for making a distinction between the early migration range and the equilibrium despite the v...


Future perspectives in Orbitrap™ high resolution mass spectrometry in food analysis - a review.

We have conducted a literature search from 2007-2014 to identify publications where principally LC-Orbitrap™ high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been employed in food analysis. Of a total of 212 relevant references, only 22 papers were from the years 2007-2010, but in subsequent years there has been a steady growth in publications with 38 to 55 relevant papers being published each year from 2011-2014. In the food safety area over 50% of the published papers were equally divided between pesticides...


The influence of interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity. Analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by the consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients, knowledge on the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitami...

Tuesday 29th April 1253

Authentication of yerba mate according to the country of origin by using Fourier transform infrared associated with chemometrics.

This study deals with the development of a method for classification of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and multivariate analysis. Fifty four brands of yerba mate from Southern South America were analysed in order to classify the commercialized yerba mate according to the respective country of yerba mate processing. The yerba mate was ground in cryogenic mill and the reflectance was directly measured in the region ranging from 4,000 t...


Determination of potential illegal addition of β-blockers to function foods by QuEChERS sample preparation and UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

A novel method has been established for the determination of 11 β-blockers in sedative functional foods using QuEchERS sample preparation coupled with UPLC-MS/MS. The analytes were extracted twice with acetic acid-acetonitrile- methanol (0.1:3:7,v/v/v), and the extracts were purified with mixed QuEchERS adsorbents. Separation was performed on a C18 column, and detection using electrospray ionisation in positive-ion mode. The linear range for the 11 analytes was from 1 to 500 μg/L, and the correlation coe...


Potentiation of the effect of a commercial animal feed additive mixed with different probiotic yeast strains on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1.

This study potentiates the adsorbent effect for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of a commercial additive (CA) of animal feed, containing inactive lysate of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, active enzymes, adsorbents and a selenium-amino acid complex, when the additive was mixed separately with three S. cerevisiae strains. Levels of AFB1 of 20 and 50 ng g(-1) were used to determine the binding capacity of different concentrations of CA alone and in the presence of yeast strains, as well as toxin desorption, und...

Monday 28th November 1222

6-iso chlortetracycline or keto form of chlortetracycline ? Need for clarification for relevant monitoring of chlortetracycline residues in food.

Chlortetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic used in veterinary medicine for pulmonary or digestive infections and having a regulatory Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) necessitating an official analytical control method. The purpose of this study was to clarify the identification of different forms of chlortetracycline observed in standard solution, in spiked muscle samples and in naturally incurred muscle samples of pigs analysed by LC-MS/MS and to demonstrate the in vivo formation of 6-iso-chlortetracyclin...

Tuesday 13th September 1222

Bisphenol A contamination in soft drinks as a risk for children's health in Italy.

Bisphenol A (BPA) was determined in sugary carbonated, non-carbonated and milk-based beverages, through HLPC-fluorescence detection and confirmed by LC-MS/MS, in a selection of brands which are mostly consumed by Italian children. The daily intake was determined through the WHO budget method (BM). BPA was found at detectable levels in 57% of carbonated beverages, in 50% of non-carbonated and in 100% of milk based beverages. The median concentrations were 1.24 µg/L (range:

Monday 13th June 1222

Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-hour recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment, however intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake-models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability have lately ...


A suitable method to detect a potential fraud of bringing Macaque monkey meat into the food chain.

Being the third-largest primate population has not made Macaque (Macaca fascicularis sp.) monkeys less exposed to threats and dangers. Despite wildlife protection, they have been widely hunted and consumed in several countries because of purported nutritional values. In addition to trading as pure bush meats in several places, monkey meat has been sold in meatball and soup products in Indonesia. Thus the possibility of Macaque meat trafficking under the label of common meats is quite high. This paper report...


A case of human poisoning by grayanotoxins following honey ingestion - elucidation of the toxin profile by mass spectrometry.

High resolution mass spectrometry was applied to the detection of grayanotoxins (GrTx) in a contaminated honey sample. This sample was provided by a hospital due to the suspicion of intoxication after a patient had shown the typical symptoms of GrTx poisoning. The subsequent analysis proved the contamination with high amounts of GrTx and other toxins belonging to grayanane-type diterpenoids. This group of natural toxins is synthesised by the plant family Ericaceae and comprises more than 60 individual toxin...


Do fattening process and biological parameters affect the accumulation of metals in Atlantic bluefin tuna?

The objective of this study was to determine the current levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Atlantic bluefin tuna muscle tissues and how they are influenced by the fattening process and various life history parameters, to ascertain whether the concentrations in muscle tissue exceed the maximum levels defined by the European Commission Decision and to evaluate the health risk posed by fish consumption. A total of 20 bluefin tuna reared in sea cages, ranging from 160 to 295 cm in length and from 80...


The development of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry method for the rapid detection and confirmation of illegal adulterated sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements.

A novel method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous screening, identification and quantification of sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements. Chromatographic conditions were optimised and Full data-dependent MS(2) scan (MS/dd-MS(2)) in positive and negative ion mode was used. A single injection was sufficient to perform the simultaneous screening and...


Occurrence of pesticide residues and transformation products in different types of dietary supplements.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of pesticide residues and transformation products in dietary supplement products. 32 samples were analysed to determine 177 pesticides by GC-MS/MS and 333 pesticides by liquid LC-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Pesticides were extracted from different kinds of dietary supplements by the use of a modified QuEChERS extraction method. Six samples contained pesticide residues at concentration up to 92.7 µg kg(-1), but only butralin exceeded ...


Perchlorate: water and infant formulae contamination in France and risk assessment in infants.

Perchlorate ions ClO4-, known to competitively inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, have been detected in drinking water in France as well as in infant formulae. A Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) has been established at 0.7 µg/kg bw/d based on the inhibition of iodine uptake. Due to this mechanism of action, the iodine status could strongly influence the biological effect of perchlorate. Perchlorate concentrations in water and infant formulae have been measured and the exposure of children under 6 m...


Tissue distribution and residue depletion of metronidazole in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Tissue distribution and residue depletion of metronidazole (MNZ) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following oral administration of metronidazole in feed at the average dose of 25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 7 days at 11 ± 2°C. The MNZ concentration in feed was 0.25% while daily feed intake was 1% of body weight. The concentrations of metronidazole and its main metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole (MNZOH), in fish tissues were determined by LC-MS/MS. The drug was well distributed i...

Monday 13th October 1203

Characterization and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterizing the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the US and internationally, which claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, poly...