PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

04:54 EST 22nd December 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 206 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment


Pyrazolopyrimidines in 'all-natural' products for erectile dysfunction treatment: the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-related impurities or by-products of different reaction steps in the synthesis of PDE5 analogues. As they were fo...


Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently PKC has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern for economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study ...

Sunday 31st December 1121

Magnetic Three-dimensional Graphene Solid-phase Extraction Of Chlorophenols From Honey Samples.

In this work, a novel magnetic three-dimensional graphene nano-composite (3D-G@Fe3O4) with a high surface area was synthesised by a vacuum freeze-dried method. Due to its high surface area, specific three-dimensional nano-porous structure and excellent magnetic properties, it can be used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. Some chlorophenols in honey samples were enriched by this nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Factors that affect the extraction eff...

Saturday 9th July 1120

Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the...

Tuesday 4th August 1113

Comparison of plasma and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynhus myccis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after single oral administration.

The aim of the study was to investigate the serum and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus caprio) after single oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the 3(rd) and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to ...

Monday 4th May 1113

Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and stability during cooking.

The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs (dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ)) was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24 h immersion (day 0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361-4189 and 0.28-6.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration ...


Quantitation of multiple mycotoxins and cyanogenic glucosides in cassava samples from Tanzania and Rwanda by an LC-MS/MS based multi-toxin method.

A multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for a mycotoxin survey in 627 samples of processed cassava collected from different districts across Tanzania and Rwanda after the method performance for this matrix had been determined. Matrix effects as well as extraction efficiencies were found to be similar to most other previously investigated matrices with the exception of distinct matrix effects in the negative ionization mode for early eluting compou...


Validation of a lateral flow test (MRLAFMQ) for detection of aflatoxin M1 at 50 ng l(-1) in raw commingled milk.

Aflatoxin M1 contamination in dairy products is a risk when feedstuff contaminated with aflatoxin B1 produced by molds is consumed by milk-producing animals. Milk can be screened for aflatoxin M1 at the EU maximum limit (ML) of 50 ng l(-1) by a lateral flow test, the MRLAFMQ (Aflatoxin M1) Test. The method takes 15 min with no milk dilution or a sample preparation step. The lateral flow assay was validated at ILVO-T&V according to EU guidelines using fortified raw milk samples. A detection capability of 50 ...


Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in beverages and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 water-soluble vitamins that are widely used as additives in beverages and dietary supplements. This combined method involves the following simple pre-treatment procedures: dietary supplement samples were prepared by centrifugation and filtration after an extraction step, whereas beverage samples were diluted prior to injection. Chromatographic analysis in this method utilized a multi-mode ODS column, which provided reverse-phase, anio...


Effect of ozone treatment on deoxynivalenol and quality evaluation of ozonized wheat.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the secondary metabolite of Fusarium graminearum which is always found in Fusarium head blight of wheat. In this study, gaseous ozone was used to treat both DON solution and scabbed wheat to investigate the effectiveness of ozone treatment on DON degradation and the effect of ozone on the quality parameters of wheat. It was found that gaseous ozone had a significant effect on DON reduction in solution, when 10 mg L(-1) gaseous ozone was used to treat a 1 μg mL(-1) of DON solution, t...

Saturday 7th October 1098

Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of...


Ameliorative effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G on zearalenone toxicosis in pre-pubertal female gilts.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) on the growing performance, genital organs, serum hormones and histopathological changes of pre-pubertal female gilts, and to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G in alleviating zearalenone toxicosis in gilts. Eighteen pre-pubertal female gilts were randomly allocated to three treatments with one replicate per treatment. The gilts were fed following three diets for 24 days: Control group was given a basic diet wi...


Migration by "direct" or "indirect" food contact? "Dry" and "wetting" foods? Experimental data for "touching" contact of dry foods with paper and board.

Food contact is characterised in various terms, all of which are somewhat ill-defined. This work investigated the simplification that migration from food contact materials into dry food virtually exclusively proceeds through the gas phase, which would imply that the migration of essentially non-volatile components were negligible. Here it is shown that this is not necessarily appropriate: for newspaper printed with an ink based on essentially non-volatile poly alpha olefins (PAO) as main solvent, the migrat...


Determination of radiostrontium in milk samples by ultra-low level liquid scintillation counting: a validated approach.

Strontium-90 is a hazardous radionuclide derived from nuclear fission processes, and it decays emitting high-energy beta particles forming Yttrium-90. It may be easily absorbed in humans through several food supply chains, since it is chemically similar to some important biological elements such as potassium and calcium. In this work an analytical method for the determination of radiostrontium in milk by liquid scintillation counting was developed in order to obtain a precise quantification at low activity ...


Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in-vitro and in-vivo models.

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue concentrations of OTA were analysed in the absence and presence of the test compounds, and the profile of OTA-derived metaboli...


Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and...


Effect of the bread making process on zearalenone levels.

In this research, the effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for ferm...

Wednesday 26th December 1082

Development of a quantitative GC-FID method for the determination of stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in foods.

Sodium and calcium salts of stearoyl-lactylates (SLs) are food emulsifiers especially used in bread and bakery products to improve the texture. They should be used at the lowest level at which the desired technological effect is achieved in a specific food category and at amounts not exceeding the maximal ones set by the Commission Regulation 1129/2011. In order to be able to evaluate whether these emulsifiers are used correctly but also to be able to evaluate whether the commercial additive formulations ar...

Sunday 2nd September 1082

Utilizing an LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach to assess the mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothe...

Friday 25th August 1081

The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum allows the convenient determination of fitness and survival as a measure of toxic effects of the food contaminant acrylamide.

Acrylamide is a toxic ingredient generated as a by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at temperatures above 120°C. Here we used the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model organism to test the effects of acrylamide on fitness and survival. Beetles were fed on flour spiked with acrylamide between 0.5% and 10% at 32°C over two weeks. Fitness of the beetles was tested by measuring the running distance and survival which was recorded after two-weeks feeding at increased temper...


Prevention of toxigenic fungal growth in stored grains by carbon dioxide detection.

The growth of toxigenic fungi can adversely affect grain quality and even produce mycotoxins of food safety concern, which should be sensitively monitored and controlled during grain storage. To establish the relationship between growth of toxigenic fungi and their carbon dioxide (CO2) production, the pattern of CO2 concentration changes were studied during the fungal growth in grain. The results showed the CO2 concentrations increased exponentially (r  0.96) during the growth of toxigenic fungi Aspergil...

Tuesday 7th October 1078

A method of analysis for T-2 toxin and neosolaniol by UHPLC-MS/MS in apple fruit inoculated with Trichothecium roseum.

Trichothecenes are one of the most important groups of mycotoxins produced by Trichothecium roseum, which causes core rot of apple. A reliable and sensitive method was developed and successfully applied to the rapid detection of trichothecenes including T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in harvested apple using UPLC-MS/MS. After the extraction of the two mycotoxins from apple matrix with methanol/water (80/20, v/v), the concentrated extracts were cleaned-up by PriboFast M270 columns and then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS....

Tuesday 17th June 1078

Quantitative profiling of oxylipins through comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis of Fusarium verticillioides and maize kernels.

Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens to cause ear and stalk rot in maize, even if frequently asymptomatic, producing a harmful series of compounds named fumonisins. Plant and fungal oxylipins play a crucial role in determining the outcome of the interaction between the pathogen and its host. Moreover, oxylipins result as signals able to modulate the secondary metabolism in fungi. In keeping with this, we designed a novel quantitative LC-MS/MS method to quantify up to 17 dif...

Thursday 12th June 1078

Discovery of systematic responses and potential biomarkers induced by ochratoxin A using metabolomics.

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic in rodents when exposed orally. To understand the systematic responses to OTA exposure, GC-MS- and (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic techniques together with histopathological assessments were applied to analyse the urine and plasma of OTA-exposed rats. It was found that OTA exposure caused significant elevation of amino acids (alanine, glycine, leucine etc.), pentose (ribose, glucitol, xylitol etc.) and nucleic acid metabolites (pseudouridine, adenosin...


Mycotoxin contamination of animal feedingstuff: detoxification by gamma irradiation and reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A concentrations.

Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites identified in many agricultural products screened for toxigenic moulds. Mycotoxins have been reported to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic and dermatitic to a wide range of organisms. With the increasing stringent regulations for the mycotoxins, imposed by the importing countries such as the EU, many cereals that are not safe for human consumption, are used in formulations intended for animal feed. Gamma rays are reported in the scientific l...

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