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PubMed Journal Database | Lipids RSS

00:45 EDT 21st April 2014 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage which comprises of more than 21 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.  BioPortfolio aims to publish relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with users selected topics.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 250 from Lipids


Inter-Tissue Differences in Fatty Acid Incorporation as a Result of Dietary Oil Manipulation in Port Jackson Sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pell...


Plasma Lipids, Lipoprotein Metabolism and HDL Lipid Transfers are Equally Altered in Metabolic Syndrome and in Type 2 Diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-r...


Retroconversion of Docosapentaenoic Acid (n-6): an Alternative Pathway for Biosynthesis of Arachidonic Acid in Daphnia magna.

The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3 % of all FA). As expe...


Nitrooleate Mediates Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation in Endothelial Cells.

Nitrated lipids such as nitrooleate (OLA-NO2) can act as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands to exert vascular protective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding nitric oxide (NO) production and its regulation are not fully defined in the vasculature. Here, we show that OLA-NO2 increased endothelial NO release by modulating activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells. Treatment with OLA-NO2 (3 μM) increased NO release in...


Effects of a Diet Rich in n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Hepatic Lipogenesis and Beta-Oxidation in Mice.

Here, we investigate whether a diet rich in fish oil can lead to the development of hepatic alterations associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To achieve this goal, we provided, for 8 weeks, four different diets to 3-month-old C57BL/6 mice: (a) standard-chow diet (SC; 40 g soybean oil/kg diet, 10 % of the total energy content from lipids), (b) fish oil diet (FO; 4 g soybean oil and 36 g fish oil/kg diet, 10 % of the total energy content from lipids), (c) high-fat diet (HF; 40 g so...


15-Lipoxygenase-Mediated Modification of HDL3 Impairs eNOS Activation in Human Endothelial Cells.

Caveolae are cholesterol and glycosphingolipids-enriched microdomains of plasma membranes. Caveolin-1 represents the major structural protein of caveolae, that also contain receptors and molecules involved in signal transduction pathways. Caveolae are particularly abundant in endothelial cells, where they play important physiological and pathological roles in regulating endothelial cell functions. Several molecules with relevant functions in endothelial cells are localized in caveolae, including endothelial...


Elaidic Acid Increases Hepatic Lipogenesis by Mediating Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1c Activity in HuH-7 Cells.

The liver is the major organ responsible for lipid biosynthesis. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) are major transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes regulating fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we show that elaidic acid upregulates hepatic de-novo fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in HuH-7 cells. To define the molecular mechanism involved in this unique regulation on hepatic lipogenesis, luciferase reporter gene assays were performed in HEK293 cells to com...


Maternal Consumption of trans-Fatty Acids During the First Half of Gestation are Metabolically Available to Suckled Newborn Rats.

Dietary trans-fatty acids (t-FA) during pregnancy have adverse effects on growth and development. To determine the effect of dietary t-FA during just the first half of pregnancy, rats were given a diet containing 8 % hydrogenated peanut oil and 2 % olive oil (PO) and compared to rats given a diet containing 10 % olive oil (OO). After 12 days all rats were fed standard diet and were studied at days 12 or 20 of pregnancy or days 1 or 6 postpartum. At day 12 of pregnancy there were small differences in the...


Types of Oilseed and Adipose Tissue Influence the Composition and Relationships of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products in Steers Fed a Grass Hay Diet.

The current study evaluated the composition and relationships of polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products (PUFA-BHP) from the perirenal (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) of yearling steers fed a 70 % grass hay diet with concentrates containing either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS). Analysis of variance indicated several groups or families of structurally related FA, and individual FA within these were affected by a number of novel oilseed by fat depot interactions (P 


Accumulation of Hydroxyl Lipids and 4-Hydroxy-2-Hexenal in Live Fish Infected with Fish Diseases.

Hydroxy lipids (L-OH) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) levels as well as other parameters such as lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehydes levels in the liver of diseased fish were investigated. Although significant differences in lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehyde levels were not always observed between normal and diseased fish, L-OH and HHE levels were significantly higher in the liver of the diseased fish than in that of the normal fish cultured...


A MALDI MS Investigation of the Lysophosphatidylcholine/Phosphatidylcholine Ratio in Human Spermatozoa and Erythrocytes as a Useful Fertility Marker.

The human spermatozoa membrane is characterized by a unique fatty acyl composition with significant amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (22:6), whereby phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) (16:0/22:6) is the most abundant glycerophospholipid. The large amount of highly unsaturated fatty acyl residues is crucial for the fluidity of the membrane and, therefore, the successful fertilization process. Consequently, however, the spermatozoa are very sensitive to reactive oxygen sp...


Development of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Free Sphingoid Bases Using 4-Fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F).

The molecular species of sphingoid bases were tagged with the fluorescent amino group reagent, 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F). The NBD-sphingoid bases were analyzed by a highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique capable of reliable detection of several fmol of the derivatives. Lipid extracts from plant samples were derivatized with NBD-F, and all nine species of free sphingoid bases present in plant sphingolipids were...


Lipid Metabolic Dose Response to Dietary Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Monk Parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA...


Conjugated Linoleic Acid (t-10, c-12) Reduces Fatty Acid Synthesis de Novo, but not Expression of Genes for Lipid Metabolism in Bovine Adipose Tissue ex Vivo.

We hypothesized that exogenous fatty acids, and especially or 18:2 trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), would decrease adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression and de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissues. Fresh i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues were collected from the longissimus thoracis muscle of Angus steers at 12, 14, and 16 months of age (n = 4 per time point). Adipose tissue explants were incubated in duplicate for 48 h with 40 μM α...


Monounsaturated 14:1n-9 and 16:1n-9 Fatty Acids but not 18:1n-9 Induce Apoptosis and Necrosis in Murine HL-1 Cardiomyocytes.

Patients with inborn errors of long-chain fatty acid oxidation accumulate disease-specific acylcarnitines and triacylglycerols in various tissues. Some of these patients present significant cardiac diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. The mechanism of how fatty acid accumulation is involved in disease pathogenesis is still unclear but apoptosis of cardiomyocytes has been suggested to be one possible mechanism of cardiomyopathy development. In this study, we measured lipid uptake and intracellula...


Synbiotic Food Consumption Reduces Levels of Triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not Cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in Plasma from Pregnant Women.

To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2...


Differential Expressions of G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 and Comparative Gene Identification-58 are Associated with Fat Content in Bovine Muscle.

Regulation of lipolysis in muscle is a potential mechanism affecting marbling in beef carcasses and fat accumulation in muscles of humans, which is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis is inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) and co-activated by comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58). In this study, bovine G0S2 and CGI-58 were sequenced, and expressions of these genes were compared among various tissues and in muscles between bulls and steers with di...


Changes in Tissue Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Farmed Rainbow Trout in Response to Dietary Camelina Oil as a Replacement of Fish Oil.

Camelina oil (CO) replaced 50 and 100 % of fish oil (FO) in diets for farmed rainbow trout (initial weight 44 ± 3 g fish(-1)). The oilseed is particularly unique due to its high lipid content (40 %) and high amount of 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) (30 %). Replacing 100 % of fish oil with camelina oil did not negatively affect growth of rainbow trout after a 12-week feeding trial (FO = 168 ± 32 g fish(-1); CO = 184 ± 35 g fish(-1)). Lipid and fatty acid profiles of muscle, viscera a...


Kinetics of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) Change with its Development.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the ontogeny and kinetic of CPT I in several tissues of the Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus. To this end, liver, muscle and intestine tissues were examined at five various developmental stages of Chinese sucker: newly-hatched larvae, 68-day-old, 4-month-old, 1- and 2-year-old Chinese sucker, respectively. The total carnitine (TC) content in the liver increased from birth to 1-year-old Chinese sucker and then declined in the 2-year-old Chinese sucker. From th...


Protectin DX, a Double Lipoxygenase Product of DHA, Inhibits Both ROS Production in Human Neutrophils and Cyclooxygenase Activities.

Neutrophils play a major role in inflammation by releasing large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). This ROS overproduction is mediated by phosphorylation of the NOX subunits in an uncontrolled manner. Therefore, targeting neutrophil subunits would represent a promising strategy to moderate NOX activity, lower ROS, and other inflammatory agents, such as cytokines and leukotrienes, produced by neutrophils. For this purpose, we investigated the...


Endurance Training Increases Leptin Expression in the Retroperitoneal Adipose Tissue of Rats Fed with a High-Sugar Diet.

The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipo...


Autosomal Dominant Inheritance of Brain Cardiolipin Fatty Acid Abnormality in VM/DK Mice: Association with Hypoxic-Induced Cognitive Insensitivity.

Cardiolipin is a complex polyglycerol phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and regulates numerous enzyme activities especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. Abnormalities in cardiolipin can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We recently demonstrated that the ratio of shorter chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:0; C18:0; C18:1) to longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2; C20:4; C22:6) was signifi...


Interaction Between VLDL and Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes Generates New γ-LpE-like Particles.

One of the subfractions of HDL involved in reverse cholesterol transport is γ-LpE. It has been assumed that, like preβ-LpAI, it can be generated during the interaction between phosphatidylcholine liposomes and lipoproteins and can contribute to more efficient cholesterol efflux after the introduction of liposomes to plasma. However, there has been no evidence concerning what the sources of these particles in plasma might be. Here, we determined whether the interaction of phosphatidylcholine liposomes with...


Brefeldin A Limits N-Hexanoylsphingosine-Induced Accumulation of Natural Ceramide via the Salvage Pathway by Enhancing Glucosylation.

Cells actively metabolize exogenously administered N-hexanoylsphingosine (C6-Cer) to natural (i.e. long-chain) ceramide (LC-Cer) via the sphingosine (Sph) salvage pathway, namely via C6-Cer deacylation and Sph reacylation with a long-chain fatty acid. Based on the observation that the mycotoxin brefeldin A (BFA), a Golgi complex disassembler, impairs C6-Cer-evoked LC-Cer accumulation, it has been hypothesized that the integrity of the above-mentioned organelle might be necessary for C6-Cer processing via th...


Determination and Structural Elucidation of Triacylglycerols in Krill Oil by Chromatographic Techniques.

The content of triacylglycerols (TAG) in krill oil is generally omitted from the labels of commercial supplements and unacknowledged in studies aimed at proving its health benefits. The present study demonstrates that TAG compounds, in addition to phospholipids and lysophospholipids, are an important lipid class in pure krill oil. The fatty acid composition of TAG molecules from krill oil and their distribution on the backbone of TAG structures were determined by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography...

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