PubMed Journal Database | Lipids RSS

12:35 EDT 4th September 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 271 from Lipids


Protective Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Palmitic Acid-Induced Toxicity in Skeletal Muscle Cells is not Mediated by PPARδ Activation.

Unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) are able to prevent deleterious effects of saturated FFA in skeletal muscle cells although the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. FFA act as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of PPARδ, the most common PPAR subtype in skeletal muscle, plays a role in mediating the prote...

Friday 7th July 1301

2014 G.J. Schroepfer Jr. Memorial AOCS Sterol Symposium: Recent Advances in Sterol Research.

Thursday 6th July 1301

Natural Rumen-Derived trans Fatty Acids Are Associated with Metabolic Markers of Cardiac Health.

Evidence suggests that industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) impair lipid profiles while ruminant trans fatty acids (rTFA) may lower insulin resistance and blood pressure. The objective of this article was to determine if the plasma phospholipid percentage of rTFA is associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile. We collected fasting blood samples from 200 individuals from Quebec city (QC, Canada) aged from 18 to 55 years old, including 100 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg m(-2)) and 100 non-obese (BMI 

Wednesday 21st May 1259

Novel, Rapid Identification, and Quantification of Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

A new, rapid Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure is described to screen for the authenticity of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) and to determine the kind and amount of an adulterant in EVOO. To screen EVOO, a partial least squares (PLS1) calibration model was developed to estimate a newly created FT-NIR index based mainly on the relative intensities of two unique carbonyl overtone absorptions in the FT-NIR spectra of EVOO and other mixtures attributed to volatile (5280 cm(-1)) a...


Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation has no Impact on Aerobic Capacity of Healthy Young Men.

This study investigated the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the aerobic capacity and anthropometric measurements of humans. Although this effect has been shown in animal studies, human studies have reported controversial results. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 80 non-trained healthy young men received a 50:50 mixture of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (CLA 4 × 0.8 g day(-1)) ora placebo (PLA; soybean oil) in an 8-week intervention. Maximal oxygen...

Thursday 27th July 1245

Decreases in Phospholipids Containing Adrenic and Arachidonic Acids Occur in the Human Hippocampus over the Adult Lifespan.

One of the biggest risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease is advanced age. Despite several studies examining changes to phospholipids in the hippocampus during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, little is known regarding changes to phospholipids in this region during normal adult aging. This study examined the phospholipid composition of the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of the human hippocampus from post-mortem tissue of neurologically normal subjects aged between 18 and 104 years....

Saturday 9th March 1213

Erratum to: Double Bond Stereochemistry Influences the Susceptibility of Short-Chain Isoprenoids and Polyprenols to Decomposition by Thermo-Oxidation.


Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight me...


The Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Consumption on Mammary Carcinogenesis.

The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Studies in animals and in vitro have demonstrated mechanisms that could explain this apparent effect, but clinical and epidemiological studies have returned conflicting results on the practical benefits of dietary n-3 PUFA for prevention of breast cancer. Effects are often only significant within a population when comparing the highest n-3 PUFA consumption group to the lowest n-3 group or hi...


Octacosanol Enhances the Proliferation and Migration of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk Pathways.

Atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, lipid deposition, fibro-proliferative reactions and inflammation. Octacosanol is a high-molecular-weight primary aliphatic alcohol. As the main component of a cholesterol-lowering drug, octacosanol could inhibit lipids accumulation and cholesterol metabolism. To explore the indication of octacosanol on endothelial protection, we evaluated its effects on the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cell viabili...


Differential Modulation of S1PR(1-5) and Specific Activities of SphK and nSMase in Pulmonary and Cerebral Tissues of Rats Exposed to Hypobaric Hypoxia.

Recent preclinical and clinical studies have unfolded the potential of pharmacological modulation of activities of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and S1P metabolizing enzymes for the development of therapeutic interventions against a variety of pathologies. An understanding of differential and temporal effects of hypoxia exposure on the key components of S1P signalling would certainly aid in designing improved drug development strategies in this direction. In view of this, the aim of the present st...

Wednesday 27th November 1106

n-3 PUFA Induce Microvascular Protective Changes During Ischemia/Reperfusion.

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur in consequence of myocardial infarction, stroke and multiple organ failure, the most prevalent cause of death in critically ill patients. I/R injury encompass impairment of endothelial dependent relaxation, increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) found in fish oil have several anti-inflammatory propert...


Treatment of Low HDL-C Subjects with the CETP Modulator Dalcetrapib Increases Plasma Campesterol Only in Those Without ABCA1 and/or ApoA1 Mutations.

We investigated the effect of dalcetrapib treatment on phytosterol levels in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) or familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA) due to mutations in apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Patients (n = 40) with FCH or FHA received dalcetrapib 600 mg or placebo in this 4-week, double-blind, crossover study. Lipids, apolipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity and mass, and phytosterols were assessed. Dalc...


Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Reverses Age-Related Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in Aged Rats.

Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma m...

Friday 22nd October 1046

Parenteral Lipid Emulsions in Guinea Pigs Differentially Influence Plasma and Tissue Levels of Fatty Acids, Squalene, Cholesterol, and Phytosterols.

Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute a...

Friday 25th December 1045

Differential Response to an Algae Supplement High in DHA Mediated by Maternal Periconceptional Diet: Intergenerational Effects of n-6 Fatty Acids.

Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dor...

Friday 24th February 1042

Palmitic Acid and Oleic Acid Differentially Regulate Choline Transporter-Like 1 Levels and Glycerolipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

Choline is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Here we elucidate the mechanism of how palmitic acid (PAM) and oleic acid (OLA) regulate choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) function. We evaluated the mechanism of extracellular and intracellular transport of choline, and their contribution to PtdCho and other glycerolipid-diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) homeostasis in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. PAM reduces ...


Hypercholesterolemia Increases Plasma Saturated and n-6 Fatty Acids Altering Prostaglandin Homeostasis and Promotes Endothelial Dysfunction in Rabbits.

The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. T...


Development of the Analysis of Fecal Stanols in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas and Identification of Fecal Contamination in Shellfish Harvesting Areas.

The objective of this work was to study the effects of washing and purification steps on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using either single or a combination of lipid purification steps on silica gel or aminopropyl bonded silica gel (NH2) or a washing step. Among the three analytical pathways compared, the two including water extraction or NH2 purification did not lead to higher recoveries and decreased repeatabilities of extractions compared to the sin...


The Relative Proportions of Different Lipid Classes and their Fatty Acid Compositions Change with Culture Age in the Cariogenic Dental Pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159.

The oral cariogenic bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 has become an important research organism strain since its genome was sequenced. However, there is a paucity of information on its lipidome using direct analytical biochemical approaches. We here report on comprehensive analyses of the major lipid classes and their fatty acids in cells grown in batch standing cultures. Using 2-D high-performance thin-layer chromatography lipid class composition changes were detected with culture age. M...


Rumen Metabolism of 22:6n-3 In Vitro is Dependent on its Concentration and Inoculum Size, but Less Dependent on Substrate Carbohydrate Composition.

Ruminal disappearance of linoleic and linolenic acid has been studied extensively. Less is known of the metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The aim of this study was to identify factors which affect the disappearance of 22:6n-3 during in vitro batch incubations using rumen fluid from sheep. In experiment 1, the effect of the rumen fluid/buffer ratio (0.2 or 0.4), substrate (cellulose or cellulose/glucose), time of 22:6n-3 addition (0.08 mg/mL after 0 or 6 h of incubation) and incubation time (24...


Inter-Tissue Differences in Fatty Acid Incorporation as a Result of Dietary Oil Manipulation in Port Jackson Sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pell...


Plasma Lipids, Lipoprotein Metabolism and HDL Lipid Transfers are Equally Altered in Metabolic Syndrome and in Type 2 Diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-r...


Retroconversion of Docosapentaenoic Acid (n-6): an Alternative Pathway for Biosynthesis of Arachidonic Acid in Daphnia magna.

The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3 % of all FA). As expe...


Nitrooleate Mediates Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation in Endothelial Cells.

Nitrated lipids such as nitrooleate (OLA-NO2) can act as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands to exert vascular protective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding nitric oxide (NO) production and its regulation are not fully defined in the vasculature. Here, we show that OLA-NO2 increased endothelial NO release by modulating activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells. Treatment with OLA-NO2 (3 μM) increased NO release in...