PubMed Journal Database | Lipids RSS

02:56 EDT 1st November 2014 | BioPortfolio

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 260 from Lipids

Wednesday 27th November 1106

n-3 PUFA Induce Microvascular Protective Changes During Ischemia/Reperfusion.

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur in consequence of myocardial infarction, stroke and multiple organ failure, the most prevalent cause of death in critically ill patients. I/R injury encompass impairment of endothelial dependent relaxation, increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) found in fish oil have several anti-inflammatory propert...

1086386

Treatment of Low HDL-C Subjects with the CETP Modulator Dalcetrapib Increases Plasma Campesterol Only in Those Without ABCA1 and/or ApoA1 Mutations.

We investigated the effect of dalcetrapib treatment on phytosterol levels in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) or familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA) due to mutations in apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Patients (n = 40) with FCH or FHA received dalcetrapib 600 mg or placebo in this 4-week, double-blind, crossover study. Lipids, apolipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity and mass, and phytosterols were assessed. Dalc...

1051973

Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Reverses Age-Related Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in Aged Rats.

Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma m...

Friday 22nd October 1046

Parenteral Lipid Emulsions in Guinea Pigs Differentially Influence Plasma and Tissue Levels of Fatty Acids, Squalene, Cholesterol, and Phytosterols.

Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute a...

Friday 25th December 1045

Differential Response to an Algae Supplement High in DHA Mediated by Maternal Periconceptional Diet: Intergenerational Effects of n-6 Fatty Acids.

Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dor...

Friday 24th February 1042

Palmitic Acid and Oleic Acid Differentially Regulate Choline Transporter-Like 1 Levels and Glycerolipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

Choline is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Here we elucidate the mechanism of how palmitic acid (PAM) and oleic acid (OLA) regulate choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) function. We evaluated the mechanism of extracellular and intracellular transport of choline, and their contribution to PtdCho and other glycerolipid-diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) homeostasis in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. PAM reduces ...

1015904

Hypercholesterolemia Increases Plasma Saturated and n-6 Fatty Acids Altering Prostaglandin Homeostasis and Promotes Endothelial Dysfunction in Rabbits.

The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. T...

995001

Development of the Analysis of Fecal Stanols in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas and Identification of Fecal Contamination in Shellfish Harvesting Areas.

The objective of this work was to study the effects of washing and purification steps on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using either single or a combination of lipid purification steps on silica gel or aminopropyl bonded silica gel (NH2) or a washing step. Among the three analytical pathways compared, the two including water extraction or NH2 purification did not lead to higher recoveries and decreased repeatabilities of extractions compared to the sin...

989711

The Relative Proportions of Different Lipid Classes and their Fatty Acid Compositions Change with Culture Age in the Cariogenic Dental Pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159.

The oral cariogenic bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 has become an important research organism strain since its genome was sequenced. However, there is a paucity of information on its lipidome using direct analytical biochemical approaches. We here report on comprehensive analyses of the major lipid classes and their fatty acids in cells grown in batch standing cultures. Using 2-D high-performance thin-layer chromatography lipid class composition changes were detected with culture age. M...

989695

Rumen Metabolism of 22:6n-3 In Vitro is Dependent on its Concentration and Inoculum Size, but Less Dependent on Substrate Carbohydrate Composition.

Ruminal disappearance of linoleic and linolenic acid has been studied extensively. Less is known of the metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The aim of this study was to identify factors which affect the disappearance of 22:6n-3 during in vitro batch incubations using rumen fluid from sheep. In experiment 1, the effect of the rumen fluid/buffer ratio (0.2 or 0.4), substrate (cellulose or cellulose/glucose), time of 22:6n-3 addition (0.08 mg/mL after 0 or 6 h of incubation) and incubation time (24...

982824

Inter-Tissue Differences in Fatty Acid Incorporation as a Result of Dietary Oil Manipulation in Port Jackson Sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pell...

982823

Plasma Lipids, Lipoprotein Metabolism and HDL Lipid Transfers are Equally Altered in Metabolic Syndrome and in Type 2 Diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-r...

981773

Retroconversion of Docosapentaenoic Acid (n-6): an Alternative Pathway for Biosynthesis of Arachidonic Acid in Daphnia magna.

The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3 % of all FA). As expe...

973001

Nitrooleate Mediates Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation in Endothelial Cells.

Nitrated lipids such as nitrooleate (OLA-NO2) can act as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands to exert vascular protective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding nitric oxide (NO) production and its regulation are not fully defined in the vasculature. Here, we show that OLA-NO2 increased endothelial NO release by modulating activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells. Treatment with OLA-NO2 (3 μM) increased NO release in...

967761

Effects of a Diet Rich in n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Hepatic Lipogenesis and Beta-Oxidation in Mice.

Here, we investigate whether a diet rich in fish oil can lead to the development of hepatic alterations associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To achieve this goal, we provided, for 8 weeks, four different diets to 3-month-old C57BL/6 mice: (a) standard-chow diet (SC; 40 g soybean oil/kg diet, 10 % of the total energy content from lipids), (b) fish oil diet (FO; 4 g soybean oil and 36 g fish oil/kg diet, 10 % of the total energy content from lipids), (c) high-fat diet (HF; 40 g so...

959921

15-Lipoxygenase-Mediated Modification of HDL3 Impairs eNOS Activation in Human Endothelial Cells.

Caveolae are cholesterol and glycosphingolipids-enriched microdomains of plasma membranes. Caveolin-1 represents the major structural protein of caveolae, that also contain receptors and molecules involved in signal transduction pathways. Caveolae are particularly abundant in endothelial cells, where they play important physiological and pathological roles in regulating endothelial cell functions. Several molecules with relevant functions in endothelial cells are localized in caveolae, including endothelial...

941624

Elaidic Acid Increases Hepatic Lipogenesis by Mediating Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1c Activity in HuH-7 Cells.

The liver is the major organ responsible for lipid biosynthesis. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) are major transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes regulating fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we show that elaidic acid upregulates hepatic de-novo fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in HuH-7 cells. To define the molecular mechanism involved in this unique regulation on hepatic lipogenesis, luciferase reporter gene assays were performed in HEK293 cells to com...

936059

Maternal Consumption of trans-Fatty Acids During the First Half of Gestation are Metabolically Available to Suckled Newborn Rats.

Dietary trans-fatty acids (t-FA) during pregnancy have adverse effects on growth and development. To determine the effect of dietary t-FA during just the first half of pregnancy, rats were given a diet containing 8 % hydrogenated peanut oil and 2 % olive oil (PO) and compared to rats given a diet containing 10 % olive oil (OO). After 12 days all rats were fed standard diet and were studied at days 12 or 20 of pregnancy or days 1 or 6 postpartum. At day 12 of pregnancy there were small differences in the...

899271

Types of Oilseed and Adipose Tissue Influence the Composition and Relationships of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products in Steers Fed a Grass Hay Diet.

The current study evaluated the composition and relationships of polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products (PUFA-BHP) from the perirenal (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) of yearling steers fed a 70 % grass hay diet with concentrates containing either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS). Analysis of variance indicated several groups or families of structurally related FA, and individual FA within these were affected by a number of novel oilseed by fat depot interactions (P 

890688

Accumulation of Hydroxyl Lipids and 4-Hydroxy-2-Hexenal in Live Fish Infected with Fish Diseases.

Hydroxy lipids (L-OH) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) levels as well as other parameters such as lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehydes levels in the liver of diseased fish were investigated. Although significant differences in lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehyde levels were not always observed between normal and diseased fish, L-OH and HHE levels were significantly higher in the liver of the diseased fish than in that of the normal fish cultured...

833137

A MALDI MS Investigation of the Lysophosphatidylcholine/Phosphatidylcholine Ratio in Human Spermatozoa and Erythrocytes as a Useful Fertility Marker.

The human spermatozoa membrane is characterized by a unique fatty acyl composition with significant amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (22:6), whereby phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) (16:0/22:6) is the most abundant glycerophospholipid. The large amount of highly unsaturated fatty acyl residues is crucial for the fluidity of the membrane and, therefore, the successful fertilization process. Consequently, however, the spermatozoa are very sensitive to reactive oxygen sp...

830438

Development of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Free Sphingoid Bases Using 4-Fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F).

The molecular species of sphingoid bases were tagged with the fluorescent amino group reagent, 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F). The NBD-sphingoid bases were analyzed by a highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique capable of reliable detection of several fmol of the derivatives. Lipid extracts from plant samples were derivatized with NBD-F, and all nine species of free sphingoid bases present in plant sphingolipids were...

815233

Lipid Metabolic Dose Response to Dietary Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Monk Parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA...

815232

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (t-10, c-12) Reduces Fatty Acid Synthesis de Novo, but not Expression of Genes for Lipid Metabolism in Bovine Adipose Tissue ex Vivo.

We hypothesized that exogenous fatty acids, and especially or 18:2 trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), would decrease adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression and de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissues. Fresh i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues were collected from the longissimus thoracis muscle of Angus steers at 12, 14, and 16 months of age (n = 4 per time point). Adipose tissue explants were incubated in duplicate for 48 h with 40 μM α...

810289

Monounsaturated 14:1n-9 and 16:1n-9 Fatty Acids but not 18:1n-9 Induce Apoptosis and Necrosis in Murine HL-1 Cardiomyocytes.

Patients with inborn errors of long-chain fatty acid oxidation accumulate disease-specific acylcarnitines and triacylglycerols in various tissues. Some of these patients present significant cardiac diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. The mechanism of how fatty acid accumulation is involved in disease pathogenesis is still unclear but apoptosis of cardiomyocytes has been suggested to be one possible mechanism of cardiomyopathy development. In this study, we measured lipid uptake and intracellula...


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