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23:29 EDT 29th June 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 2,500+ from Nano letters


Amorphization and Directional Crystallization of Metals Confined in Carbon Nanotubes Investigated by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.

The hollow core of a carbon nanotube (CNT) provides a unique opportunity to explore the physics, chemistry, biology and metallurgy of different materials confined in such nano-space. Here, we investigate the non-equilibrium metallurgical processes taking place inside CNTs by in situ transmission electron microscopy using CNTs as nanoscale resistively heated crucibles having encapsulated metal nanowires/crystals in their channels. Due to nanometer size of the system and intimate contact between the CNTs and ...


Study on the Catalytic Activity of Noble Metal Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Oxygen Evolution Reactions in Lithium-Air Batteries.

Among many challenges present in Li-air batteries, one of the main reasons of low efficiency is the high charge overpotential due to the slow oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, we present systematic evaluation of Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles supported on rGO as OER electrocatalysts in Li-air cell cathodes with LiCF3SO3-tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME) salt-electrolyte system. All of the noble metals explored could lower the charge overpotentials, and among them, Ru-rGO hybrids exhibited th...

Tuesday 15th January 1275

Dielectric scattering patterns for efficient light trapping in thin-film solar cells.

We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The extern...

Tuesday 13th November 1274

Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Nanoscale Kinetic Friction in Ambient Environmental Conditions.

The liquid lubrication, thermolubricity and dynamic lubricity due to mechanical oscillations are investigated with an atomic force microscope in ambient environmental conditions with different relative humidity (RH) levels. Experimental results demonstrate that high humidity at low temperature regime enhances the liquid lubricity while at high temperature regime it hinders the effect of the thermolubricity due to the formation of liquid bridges. Friction response to the dynamic lubricity in both high and lo...

Thursday 19th July 1274

Dimensionality Controlled Octahedral Symmetry-Mismatch and Functionalities in Epitaxial LaCoO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures.

Epitaxial strain provides a powerful approach to manipulate physical properties of materials through rigid compression or extension of their chemical bonds via lattice-mismatch. Although symmetry-mismatch can lead to new physics by stabilizing novel interfacial structures, challenges in obtaining atomic-level structural information as well as lack of a suitable approach to separate it from the parasitical lattice-mismatch have limited the development of this field. Here we present unambiguous experimental e...


Negative Capacitance in Organic/Ferroelectric Capacitor to Implement Steep Switching MOS Devices.

Because of the "Boltzmann tyranny" (i.e., the nonscalability of thermal voltage), a certain minimum gate voltage in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices is required for a tenfold increase in drain-to-source current. The subthreshold slope (SS) in MOS devices is, at best, 60 mV/decade at 300 K. Negative capacitance in organic/ferroelectric materials is proposed in order to address this physical limitation in MOS technology. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the steep switching behavior of a MOS device-i...


Heterogeneous Charge Carrier Dynamics in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials: Nanoscale Lateral and Depth-Dependent Variation of Recombination Rates in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films.

We reveal substantial luminescence yield heterogeneity among individual subdiffraction grains of high-performing methylammonium lead halide perovskite films by using high-resolution cathodoluminescence microscopy. Using considerably lower accelerating voltages than is conventional in scanning electron microscopy, we image the electron beam-induced luminescence of the films and statistically characterize the depth-dependent role of defects that promote nonradiative recombination losses. The highest variabili...


Current-Driven Supramolecular Motor with In Situ Surface Chiral Directionality Switching.

Surface-supported molecular motors are nanomechanical devices of particular interest in terms of future nanoscale applications. However, the molecular motors realized so far consist of covalently bonded groups that cannot be reconfigured without undergoing a chemical reaction. Here we demonstrate that a platinum-porphyrin-based supramolecularly assembled dimer supported on a Au(111) surface can be rotated with high directionality using the tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Rotation...


First Evidence of Rh Nano-Hydride Formation at Low Pressure.

Rh-based nanoparticles supported on a porous carbon host were prepared with tunable average sizes ranging from 1.3 to 3.0 nm. Depending on the vacuum or hydrogen environment during thermal treatment, either Rh metal or hydride is formed at nanoscale, respectively. In contrast to bulk Rh that can form a hydride phase under 4 GPa pressure, the metallic Rh nanoparticles (~2.3 nm) absorb hydrogen and form a hydride phase at pressure below 0.1 MPa, as evidenced by the presence of a plateau pressure in the Pressu...


Stabilized Skyrmion Phase Detected in MnSi Nanowires by Dynamic Cantilever Magnetometry.

Using dynamic cantilever magnetometry we measure an enhanced skyrmion lattice phase extending from around 29 K down to at least 0.4 K in single MnSi nanowires (NWs). Although recent experiments on two-dimensional thin films show that reduced dimensionality stabilizes the skyrmion phase, our results are surprising given that the NW dimensions are much larger than the skyrmion lattice constant. Furthermore, the stability of the phase depends on the orientation of the NWs with respect to the applied magnetic f...


Air Stable Doping and Intrinsic Mobility Enhancement in Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide by Amorphous Titanium Suboxide Encapsulation.

To reduce Schottky-barrier-induced contact and access resistance, and the impact of charged impurity scattering on mobility in devices based on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), considerable effort has been put into exploring various doping techniques and dielectric engineering using high-k oxides, respectively. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a high-k dielectric that serves as an effective n-type charge transfer dopant on monolayer (ML) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Utilizing amorphous tit...

Monday 15th September 1270

Evidence of Quantum Resonance in Periodically-Ordered Three-Dimensional Superlattice of CdTe Quantum Dots.

Semiconductor quantum dot (QD) superlattices, which are periodically ordered three dimensional (3D) array structures of QDs, are expected to exhibit novel photo-optical properties arising from the resonant interactions between adjacent QDs. Since the resonant interactions such as long-range dipole-dipole Coulomb coupling and short-range quantum resonance strongly depend on inter-QD nano space, precise control of the nano space is essential for physical understanding of the superlattice which includes both o...

Friday 28th March 1270

Tunable Electrical and Optical Characteristics in Monolayer Graphene and Few-Layer MoS2 Heterostructure Devices.

Lateral and vertical two-dimensional heterostructure devices, in particular graphene-MoS2, have attracted profound interest as they offer additional functionalities over normal two-dimensional devices. Here, we have carried out electrical and optical characterization of graphene-MoS2 heterostructure. The few-layer MoS2 devices with metal electrode at one end and monolayer graphene electrode at the other end show non-linearity in drain current with drain voltage sweep which can be modulated with an external ...


Mobile Charge Induced Fluorescence Intermittency in Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite.

Organic-inorganic halide perovskite has emerged as a very promising material for solar cells due to its excellent photovoltaic enabling properties resulting in rapid increase in device efficiency over the last 3 years. Extensive knowledge and in-depth physical understanding in the excited state carrier dynamics are urgently required. Here we investigate the fluorescence intermittency (also known as blinking) in vapour-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite. The evident fluorescence blinking is observed ...


Highly Ordered Surface Self-Assembly of Fe4 Single Molecule Magnets.

Single molecule magnets (SMMs) have attracted considerable attention due to low-temperature magnetic hysteresis and fascinating quantum effects. The investigation of these properties requires the possibility to deposit well-defined monolayers or spatially isolated molecules within a well-controlled adsorption geometry. Here we present a successful fabrication of self-organized arrays of Fe4 SMMs on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on Rh(111) as template. Using a rational design of the ligand shell optimized f...


Manipulating and Monitoring On-Surface Biological Reactions by Light-Triggered Local pH Alterations.

Significant research efforts have been dedicated to the integration of biological species with electronic elements to yield smart bioelectronic devices. The integration of DNA, proteins, and whole living cells and tissues with electronic devices has been developed into numerous intriguing applications. In particular, the quantitative detection of biological species, and monitoring of biological processes, are both critical to numerous areas of medical and life sciences. Nevertheless, most current approaches...


Realization of vertically aligned, ultra-high aspect ratio InAsSb nanowires on graphite.

The monolithic integration of InAs1-xSbx semiconductor nanowires on graphitic substrates holds enormous promise for cost-effective, high-performance and flexible devices in optoelectronics and high-speed electronics. However, the growth of InAs1-xSbx nanowires with high aspect ratio essential for device applications is extremely challenging due to Sb-induced suppression of axial growth and enhancement in radial growth. We report the realization of high quality, vertically aligned, non-tapered and ultra-high...

Wednesday 13th February 1269

Position-Dependent Local Detection Efficiency in a Nanowire Superconducting Single-Photon Detector.

We probe the local detection efficiency in a nanowire superconducting single-photon detector along the cross-section of the wire with a far-subwavelength resolution. We experimentally find a strong variation in the local detection efficiency of the device. We demonstrate that this effect explains previously observed variations in NbN detector efficiency as function of device geometry.


Scaling and graphical transport-map analysis of ambipolar Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors based on a parallel array of Si-nanowires.

Si-nanowire (Si-NW) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been considered as a promising candidate for next-generation flexible and wearable electronics as well as sensor applications with high performance. Here, we have fabricated ambipolar Schottky-barrier (SB) TFTs consisting of a parallel array of Si-NWs and performed an in-depth study related to their electrical performance and operation mechanism through several electrical parameters extracted from the channel length scaling based method. Especially...


The origin of high thermal conductivity and ultra-low thermal expansion in copper-graphite composites.

We developed a nanocomposite with highly aligned graphite platelets in a copper matrix. Spark plasma sintering ensured an excellent copper-graphite interface for transmitting heat and stress. The resulting composite has superior thermal conductivity (500Wm(-1)K(-1), 140% of copper) in excellent agreement with modeling based on the effective medium approximation. The thermal expansion perpendicular to the graphite platelets drops dramatically from ~20ppmK(-1) for graphite and copper separately to 2ppmK(-1) f...


Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes such as V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional Lithium-ion Battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water ...

Friday 9th November 1268

Illumination angle insensitive single indium phosphide tapered nanopillar solar cell.

Low cost, high efficiency photovoltaic can help accelerate the adoption of solar energy. Using tapered Indium Phosphide nanopillars grown on a silicon substrate, we demonstrate a single nanopillar photovoltaic exhibiting illumination angle insensitive response. The photovoltaic employs a novel regrown core-shell p-i-n junction to improve device performance by eliminating shunt current paths, resulting in a high VOC of 0.534 V and a power conversion efficiency of 19.6%. Enhanced broadband light absorption is...

Thursday 9th August 1268

Optical trapping of gold nanoparticles in air.

Most progress on optical nanoparticle control has been in liquids while optical control in air has proven more challenging. By utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a single laser beam with a minimum of aberration, we trapped individual 200 to 80 nm gold nanoparticles in air and quantified the corresponding trapping strengths. These results pave the way for construction of metallic nanostructures in air away from surfaces.

Sunday 15th April 1268

Catalytic Conversion of Hexagonal Boron Nitride to Graphene for In-Plane Heterostructures.

Heterostructures of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene have attracted a great deal of attention for potential applications in 2D materials. While several methods have been developed to produce this material through the partial substitution reaction of graphene, the reverse reaction has not been reported. While the endothermic nature of this reaction might account for the difficulty and previous absence of such a process, we report herein a new chemical route in which the Pt substrate plays a cataly...


Hamiltonian optics of hyperbolic polaritons in nanogranules.

Semiclassical quantization rules and numerical calculations are applied to study polariton modes of materials whose permittivity tensor has principal values of opposite sign (so-called hyperbolic materials). The spectra of volume- and surface-confined polaritons are computed for spheroidal nanogranules of hexagonal boron nitride, a natural hyperbolic crystal. The field distribution created by polaritons excited by an external dipole source is predicted to exhibit ray-like patterns due to classical periodic ...