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17:49 EDT 28th July 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 529 from Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

Wednesday 2nd April 1298

Cell signalling: One kinase targets many secreted proteins.

Tuesday 1st April 1298

Exosomes: Apoptotic beads on a string.

Monday 31st March 1298

Cytoskeleton: Degrading proteins at the primary cilium.

Sunday 30th March 1298

Chromosomes: Transgenerational remodelling of sperm DNA.

Saturday 29th March 1298

Cytoskeleton: Controlling microtubules with light.

Friday 28th March 1298

Post-translational modifications: Resisting heat stress with SUMO.

Thursday 27th March 1298

Short- and long-term effects of chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy.

Dividing cells that experience chromosome mis-segregation generate aneuploid daughter cells, which contain an incorrect number of chromosomes. Although aneuploidy interferes with the proliferation of untransformed cells, it is also, paradoxically, a hallmark of cancer, a disease defined by increased proliferative potential. These contradictory effects are also observed in mouse models of chromosome instability (CIN). CIN can inhibit and promote tumorigenesis. Recent work has provided insights into the cellu...

Wednesday 26th March 1298

Sound of silence: the properties and functions of repressive Lys methyltransferases.

The methylation of histone Lys residues by Lys methyltransferases (KMTs) regulates chromatin organization and either activates or represses gene expression, depending on the residue that is targeted. KMTs are emerging as key components in several cellular processes, and their deregulation is often associated with pathogenesis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the main KMTs that are associated with gene silencing: namely, those responsible for methylating histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9), H3K27 and H4K20. We ...

Friday 17th August 1291

Cell signalling: Limiting the side effects of senescence.

Thursday 16th August 1291

Autophagy at the crossroads of catabolism and anabolism.

Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the lysosome. Starvation-induced protein degradation is a salient feature of autophagy but recent progress has illuminated how autophagy, during both starvation and nutrient-replete conditions, can mobilize diverse cellular energy and nutrient stores such as lipids, carbohydrates and iron. Processes such as lipophagy, glycophagy and ferritinophagy enable cells to salvage key metabolites to sustain and facilit...

Wednesday 15th August 1291

Chromatin: Histone influences on chromosomal translocations.

Tuesday 17th October 1194

Lipid metabolism: Fatty acids on the move.

Monday 16th October 1194

Signalling scaffolds and local organization of cellular behaviour.

Cellular responses to environmental cues involve the mobilization of GTPases, protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. The spatial organization of these signalling enzymes by scaffold proteins helps to guide the flow of molecular information. Allosteric modulation of scaffolded enzymes can alter their catalytic activity or sensitivity to second messengers in a manner that augments, insulates or terminates local cellular events. This Review examines the features of scaffold proteins and highlights ex...

Sunday 15th October 1194

Development: Switching off WNT with precision.

1178508

Non-coding RNA: Circular RNAs promote transcription.

1178507

Replication fork reversal in eukaryotes: from dead end to dynamic response.

The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary conservation and physiological relevance into question. Based on the recent visualization of replication forks in metazoans, fork reversal has emerged as a gl...

1173887

Orchestrating transcription with the pol II CTD.

1173886

Cell signalling: Orphan receptor finds ligand.

1173885

Transcription: A mitochondrial switch between transcription and replication.

1173884

Structural basis of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mec...

1173883

Chromatin: ZNF143 in the loop.

1173882

Extracellular matrix: Collagen directs invadopodia.

1173881

Transcription: Unidirectional human promoters.

1173880

Getting up to speed with transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II.

Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II ...

1173879

The Mediator complex: a central integrator of transcription.

The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator - a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with a variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module can reversibly associate with it). These biochemical characteristics are fundamentally important for Mediator's ability to control various processes that are important for transcription, including the organization of chromat...



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