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10:15 EST 30th November 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 537 from Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

Beyond β-catenin: prospects for a larger catenin network in the nucleus.

β-catenin is widely regarded as the primary transducer of canonical WNT signals to the nucleus. In most vertebrates, there are eight additional catenins that are structurally related to β-catenin, and three α-catenin genes encoding actin-binding proteins that are structurally related to vinculin. Although these catenins were initially identified in association with cadherins at cell-cell junctions, more recent evidence suggests that the majority of catenins also localize to the nucleus and regulate gene ...

Plant vascular development: from early specification to differentiation.

Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate plant vascular development. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system, these studies enable the description of vascular development from the earliest tissue specification events during embryogenesis to the diffe...

Control of microtubule organization and dynamics: two ends in the limelight.

Microtubules have fundamental roles in many essential biological processes, including cell division and intracellular transport. They assemble and disassemble from their two ends, denoted the plus end and the minus end. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) such as end-binding protein 1 (EB1), XMAP215, selected kinesins and dynein. By contrast, information on microtubule minus-end-targeting proteins (-TIPs), such as the calmodulin-regulate...

Transcription: PAF1 regulates promoter-proximal pausing.

Gene expression: PolyQ repeats regulate transcription.

Metabolism: Human bone marrow can make fat.

DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation.

Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal ...

Microfluidics: reframing biological enquiry.

The underlying physical properties of microfluidic tools have led to new biological insights through the development of microsystems that can manipulate, mimic and measure biology at a resolution that has not been possible with macroscale tools. Microsystems readily handle sub-microlitre volumes, precisely route predictable laminar fluid flows and match both perturbations and measurements to the length scales and timescales of biological systems. The advent of fabrication techniques that do not require high...

Cell signalling: One kinase targets many secreted proteins.

Exosomes: Apoptotic beads on a string.

Cytoskeleton: Degrading proteins at the primary cilium.

Chromosomes: Transgenerational remodelling of sperm DNA.

Cytoskeleton: Controlling microtubules with light.

Post-translational modifications: Resisting heat stress with SUMO.

Short- and long-term effects of chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy.

Dividing cells that experience chromosome mis-segregation generate aneuploid daughter cells, which contain an incorrect number of chromosomes. Although aneuploidy interferes with the proliferation of untransformed cells, it is also, paradoxically, a hallmark of cancer, a disease defined by increased proliferative potential. These contradictory effects are also observed in mouse models of chromosome instability (CIN). CIN can inhibit and promote tumorigenesis. Recent work has provided insights into the cellu...

Sound of silence: the properties and functions of repressive Lys methyltransferases.

The methylation of histone Lys residues by Lys methyltransferases (KMTs) regulates chromatin organization and either activates or represses gene expression, depending on the residue that is targeted. KMTs are emerging as key components in several cellular processes, and their deregulation is often associated with pathogenesis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the main KMTs that are associated with gene silencing: namely, those responsible for methylating histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9), H3K27 and H4K20. We ...

Cell signalling: Limiting the side effects of senescence.

Autophagy at the crossroads of catabolism and anabolism.

Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the lysosome. Starvation-induced protein degradation is a salient feature of autophagy but recent progress has illuminated how autophagy, during both starvation and nutrient-replete conditions, can mobilize diverse cellular energy and nutrient stores such as lipids, carbohydrates and iron. Processes such as lipophagy, glycophagy and ferritinophagy enable cells to salvage key metabolites to sustain and facilit...

Chromatin: Histone influences on chromosomal translocations.

Lipid metabolism: Fatty acids on the move.

Signalling scaffolds and local organization of cellular behaviour.

Cellular responses to environmental cues involve the mobilization of GTPases, protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. The spatial organization of these signalling enzymes by scaffold proteins helps to guide the flow of molecular information. Allosteric modulation of scaffolded enzymes can alter their catalytic activity or sensitivity to second messengers in a manner that augments, insulates or terminates local cellular events. This Review examines the features of scaffold proteins and highlights ex...

Development: Switching off WNT with precision.

Non-coding RNA: Circular RNAs promote transcription.

Replication fork reversal in eukaryotes: from dead end to dynamic response.

The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary conservation and physiological relevance into question. Based on the recent visualization of replication forks in metazoans, fork reversal has emerged as a gl...

Orchestrating transcription with the pol II CTD.