PubMed Journal Database | Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology RSS

22:00 EST 28th February 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 515 from Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

1178508

Non-coding RNA: Circular RNAs promote transcription.

1178507

Replication fork reversal in eukaryotes: from dead end to dynamic response.

The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary conservation and physiological relevance into question. Based on the recent visualization of replication forks in metazoans, fork reversal has emerged as a gl...

1173887

Orchestrating transcription with the pol II CTD.

1173886

Cell signalling: Orphan receptor finds ligand.

1173885

Transcription: A mitochondrial switch between transcription and replication.

1173884

Structural basis of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mec...

1173883

Chromatin: ZNF143 in the loop.

1173882

Extracellular matrix: Collagen directs invadopodia.

1173881

Transcription: Unidirectional human promoters.

1173880

Getting up to speed with transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II.

Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II ...

1173879

The Mediator complex: a central integrator of transcription.

The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator - a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with a variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module can reversibly associate with it). These biochemical characteristics are fundamentally important for Mediator's ability to control various processes that are important for transcription, including the organization of chromat...

1173878

Gene expression: DYRK1A targets Pol II.

1173877

Chromatin: HP1 locked up.

1173876

Metabolism: Transcriptionally activating brown fat.

1163794

Histone exchange, chromatin structure and the regulation of transcription.

The packaging of DNA into strings of nucleosomes is one of the features that allows eukaryotic cells to tightly regulate gene expression. The ordered disassembly of nucleosomes permits RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to access the DNA, whereas nucleosomal reassembly impedes access, thus preventing transcription and mRNA synthesis. Chromatin modifications, chromatin remodellers, histone chaperones and histone variants regulate nucleosomal dynamics during transcription. Disregulation of nucleosome dynamics results...

1163793

Transcription: Relax, it's just a small cut.

1163792

Transcription termination and the control of the transcriptome: why, where and how to stop.

Transcription termination occurs when the polymerase is released after a transcription event, thus delimitating transcription units; however, the functional importance of termination extends beyond the mere definition of gene borders. By determining the cellular fate of the generated transcripts, transcription termination pathways shape the transcriptome. Recent reports have underscored the crucial role of these pathways in limiting the extent of pervasive transcription, which has attracted interest in post...

1163791

The selection and function of cell type-specific enhancers.

The human body contains several hundred cell types, all of which share the same genome. In metazoans, much of the regulatory code that drives cell type-specific gene expression is located in distal elements called enhancers. Although mammalian genomes contain millions of potential enhancers, only a small subset of them is active in a given cell type. Cell type-specific enhancer selection involves the binding of lineage-determining transcription factors that prime enhancers. Signal-dependent transcription fa...

1133893

Morphogenesis: Getting cells moving.

1133892

Cytoskeleton: How big cells are organized.

1133891

Technique: Capturing translation initiation.

1133890

Cell migration: Making contacts while on the move.

1133889

Telomeres: Chaperonin' telomerase.

1133888

Intrinsically disordered proteins in cellular signalling and regulation.

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are important components of the cellular signalling machinery, allowing the same polypeptide to undertake different interactions with different consequences. IDPs are subject to combinatorial post-translational modifications and alternative splicing, adding complexity to regulatory networks and providing a mechanism for tissue-specific signalling. These proteins participate in the assembly of signalling complexes and in the dynamic self-assembly of membrane-less nucl...

1133887

Protein neddylation: beyond cullin-RING ligases.

NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8) is a ubiquitin-like protein that activates the largest ubiquitin E3 ligase family, the cullin-RING ligases. Many non-cullin neddylation targets have been proposed in recent years. However, overexpression of exogenous NEDD8 can trigger NEDD8 conjugation through the ubiquitylation machinery, which makes validating potential NEDD8 targets challenging. Here, we re-evaluate studies of non-cullin targets of NEDD8 in light of the curre...


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