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The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 21 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and books. BioPortfolio aims to publish relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with users selected topics.
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Cellular responses to environmental cues involve the mobilization of GTPases, protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. The spatial organization of these signalling enzymes by scaffold proteins helps to guide the flow of molecular information. Allosteric modulation of scaffolded enzymes can alter their catalytic activity or sensitivity to second messengers in a manner that augments, insulates or terminates local cellular events. This Review examines the features of scaffold proteins and highlights ex...
The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary conservation and physiological relevance into question. Based on the recent visualization of replication forks in metazoans, fork reversal has emerged as a gl...
Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mec...
Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II ...
The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator - a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with a variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module can reversibly associate with it). These biochemical characteristics are fundamentally important for Mediator's ability to control various processes that are important for transcription, including the organization of chromat...
The packaging of DNA into strings of nucleosomes is one of the features that allows eukaryotic cells to tightly regulate gene expression. The ordered disassembly of nucleosomes permits RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to access the DNA, whereas nucleosomal reassembly impedes access, thus preventing transcription and mRNA synthesis. Chromatin modifications, chromatin remodellers, histone chaperones and histone variants regulate nucleosomal dynamics during transcription. Disregulation of nucleosome dynamics results...
Transcription termination occurs when the polymerase is released after a transcription event, thus delimitating transcription units; however, the functional importance of termination extends beyond the mere definition of gene borders. By determining the cellular fate of the generated transcripts, transcription termination pathways shape the transcriptome. Recent reports have underscored the crucial role of these pathways in limiting the extent of pervasive transcription, which has attracted interest in post...
The human body contains several hundred cell types, all of which share the same genome. In metazoans, much of the regulatory code that drives cell type-specific gene expression is located in distal elements called enhancers. Although mammalian genomes contain millions of potential enhancers, only a small subset of them is active in a given cell type. Cell type-specific enhancer selection involves the binding of lineage-determining transcription factors that prime enhancers. Signal-dependent transcription fa...