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The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 21 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and books. BioPortfolio aims to publish relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with users selected topics.
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Dividing cells that experience chromosome mis-segregation generate aneuploid daughter cells, which contain an incorrect number of chromosomes. Although aneuploidy interferes with the proliferation of untransformed cells, it is also, paradoxically, a hallmark of cancer, a disease defined by increased proliferative potential. These contradictory effects are also observed in mouse models of chromosome instability (CIN). CIN can inhibit and promote tumorigenesis. Recent work has provided insights into the cellu...
The methylation of histone Lys residues by Lys methyltransferases (KMTs) regulates chromatin organization and either activates or represses gene expression, depending on the residue that is targeted. KMTs are emerging as key components in several cellular processes, and their deregulation is often associated with pathogenesis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the main KMTs that are associated with gene silencing: namely, those responsible for methylating histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9), H3K27 and H4K20. We ...
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the lysosome. Starvation-induced protein degradation is a salient feature of autophagy but recent progress has illuminated how autophagy, during both starvation and nutrient-replete conditions, can mobilize diverse cellular energy and nutrient stores such as lipids, carbohydrates and iron. Processes such as lipophagy, glycophagy and ferritinophagy enable cells to salvage key metabolites to sustain and facilit...
Cellular responses to environmental cues involve the mobilization of GTPases, protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. The spatial organization of these signalling enzymes by scaffold proteins helps to guide the flow of molecular information. Allosteric modulation of scaffolded enzymes can alter their catalytic activity or sensitivity to second messengers in a manner that augments, insulates or terminates local cellular events. This Review examines the features of scaffold proteins and highlights ex...
The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary conservation and physiological relevance into question. Based on the recent visualization of replication forks in metazoans, fork reversal has emerged as a gl...
Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mec...
Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II ...
The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme transcribes all protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes and is globally regulated by Mediator - a large, conformationally flexible protein complex with a variable subunit composition (for example, a four-subunit cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module can reversibly associate with it). These biochemical characteristics are fundamentally important for Mediator's ability to control various processes that are important for transcription, including the organization of chromat...